Camp Coordination & Camp Management (CCCM) 2018. 09. 29. Dr. BESENYŐ JÁNOS
Agenda • Overview/what is CCCM?; • Protection objectives; • Underlying principles and standards; • Protection Risks; • Other risks; • Key decision points; • Key steps; • Key management considerations; • CCCM Activities • Collecting and Sharing Information: Why? • Collecting and Sharing Information: About what?
Definitions • The Cluster Approach was adopted by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee in 2005 as a means tostrengthen predictability, response capacity, coordination and accountability by strengtheningpartnerships in key sectors of humanitarian response, and by formalizing the lead role of particularagencies/organizations in each of these sectors. • As the camp management and camp coordination sector is essential in almost all emergencies, a newCCCM Cluster was created. It was acknowledged that how camp management is done is crucial to thequality of life, dignity and future sustainable solutions for the IDPs and for ensuring that life in acommunal setting constructively prepares individuals for life after displacement. At global level,UNHCR and IOM are the CCCM co-cluster lead agencies. UNHCR leads the cluster for conflict situationsand IOM for natural disasters.
What is CCCM? • The overall goal of CCCM is to improve living conditions during displacement while seeking and advocating for durable solutions to end camp-life and organize closure and phase-out of camps upon IDP return. • CCCM is applied in camps (spontaneous and planned), camp-like settings, and communal settlements, but does not include host families. It should be remembered that camps and communal settlements are temporary sites that should be established only as a last resort. • At global level, UNHCR and IOM are the CCCM co-cluster lead agencies. UNHCR leads the cluster for conflict situations and IOM for natural disasters. • Camp management is about how the IDP site is organized, to meet the basic needs for services and protection of its residents. • Every person should participate in the camps management activities, to improve the quality of life of their community. • Standards have been defined globally to uphold the right to life with dignity for people living in IDP sites and camps, providing guidance for minimum levels of service delivery and protection.
Thelevelsofresponse • Global - Standards and policy setting, building response capacity, operational support • Country - Development and support of national strategies and plans • Field / Regional - Coordination of multiple camps • Camp/centre - Management of a single camp/communal center
Camp Coordination • Camp Coordination (CC):This role is usually assumed by UNHCR in refugee emergencies and in complex (conflict-related) emergencies. It involves overall strategic and inter-camp operational coordination, covering issues such as setting strategy, setting standards, contingency planning, and information management. • Ensure all stakeholders are fully consulted and appropriately involved during the humanitarian response • Provide appropriate support to national authorities, (including capacity building), and encourage government ownership of the protection and assistance strategy for camps and communal settlements • Identify and designate camp management agencies and service providers as well as monitor and evaluate service provision • Provide training and guidance for all humanitarian partners • Set-up and maintain assessments, monitoring and information management systems for partners to have access to operational data at camp and inter-camp levels to identify gaps and duplication of efforts
Camp Administration • Camp Administration (CA):This role is usually assumed by national or local authorities. It involves the overall supervision of a camp response, including security of the persons of concern. • Maintain law and order and the civilian character of IDP settlements • Prevent any eviction or any other further displacement of IDPs in the communal settings before they can regain their original homes or are offered other sustainable solutions • Facilitate access to camps by the humanitarians • Designate/open and close camps, hereunder secure land and occupancy rights for temporary settlements • Issue documentation (birth certificates, ID cards, travel permits etc.) to its inhabitants
Camp Management • Camp Management (CM):This role is usually assumed by a NGO partner or by national or local authorities. Where capacity is limited, UNHCR may also support or take on this role. It involves coordination of a camp's services and maintenance of infrastructure. • Assist the camp co-ordination agency in defining the standards and indicators that are to be applied in particular responses with camp or camp-like situations • Closely collaborate with the on-site authorities (Camp Administration) and liaise with them on behalf of all humanitarian actors in a camp when required • Coordinate the response in one single camp, specifically collect and maintain data to identify the gaps in the provision of protection and assistance and avoid the duplication of activities as well as feed information and data to Camp Co-ordination and to any information systems which is set-up.
KEY PRINCIPLES • Create access and delivery of humanitarian services to communal settings; • Ensure effective coordination of humanitarian services and actors in communal settings; • Identify gaps and needs in terms of protection and assistance in and among communalsettings; • Provide partners with systematic information on residents (mindful of the importance of sexandage-disaggregated data), humanitarian services and gaps in collective settings; • Ensure that assistance and protection is provided uniformly in all communal settings in linewith common technical standards and policy guidance; • Ensure systematic and meaningful participation of the displaced communities in all aspects ofcamp life • Ensure development of an overall camp/settlement response strategy involving all partnersincluding beneficiaries and governmental representatives • Links assistance provided in communal settings with return and reintegration policy thatincludes durable solutions. • Ensure mainstreaming of cross-cutting issues including protection, environment, HIV/AIDSand age, gender and diversity
Protection objectives CCCM supports the following protection objectives incamp-like settings: • To promote a Rights based approach. Coordinated camp-based interventions should support persons of concern to realize their rights; • To establish a community-based approach. Community governance structures and participatory mechanisms ensure that women, men, boys and girls of all ages and diverse backgrounds contribute to their own protection; • To promote non-discrimination. CCCM promotes full and equal respect for the rights of all persons, recognizing that individuals have particular needs, and face particular inequalities and risks; • In an emergency, the sector ultimately seeks to make rapid steps towards realizing the right of all individuals and communities in camp-like situationsto participate and enjoy life with dignity.
Underlying principles and standards • CCCM is inherently cross-sectoral. It requires working in close partnership with other actors and organizations. Key standards apply in all humanitarian interventions in camps. • Key Guiding Principles • Do no Harm. All camp-based interventions should be monitored and evaluated to ensure that they do not cause harm to persons of concern. • Humanitarian Principles The principles of humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence must guide all camp-based interventions. • Principles of Partnership. A results-based approach that promotesequality, transparency, responsibility and complementarity is essential, both to sustain trust and ensure that camp-based humanitarian partnerships serve the needs of persons of concern effectively. • Key standards • Sector specific standards set out in the Digital Emergency Handbook (Shelter, WASH, distribution standards, etc.). • Sphere standards set out in the Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response. These have been collectively agreed by the broader humanitarian community, and include indicators that quantify the minimum standard required to enjoy the right to life with dignity.
Underlying principles and standards • Additional standardsMore specific standards are cited in the Camp Management Toolkit: • Camp Coordination and Management Gender Checklist (IASC, Gender Handbook, 2008). Contains useful standards and tips for mainstreaming and applying a gender lens to CCCM operations. • Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards Handbook, (LEGS), 2009. Covers the needs of displaced populations with livestock; includes health, WASH and other considerations.
Protection Risks • Attacks on civilians by parties to the conflict; • Presence of armed elements; • Conflicts with host community; • Sexual and Gender Based Violence; • Abuse, neglect and exploitation of children; • Crime. Includes theft, violence and other social disturbances; • Lack of birth and death registration; • Unrepresentative participation; • Discriminatory access to basic provisions and services. Persons of concern, especially persons with specific needs, may be excluded from access to water, food, shelter, or health services.
Other risks • Some national authorities dislike ‘camps'. Alternative titles include ‘site' or ‘settlement'. • Seasonal variations and other natural hazards generate a range of risks. Latrines and shelters may be damaged or flooded if fluctuations in rainfall were not considered sufficiently when a camp was constructed. Spontaneous camps may lack a camp management coordinating body that can highlight and address issues that threaten the camp's viability. • Fire is a serious risk, especially in crowded unplanned camps, but also in planned camps where construction is not well regulated and firebreaks are not maintained. Camp managers should ensure that camp volunteers are equipped and trained to deal with fire risks. • Erosion and environmental degradation. Poorly maintained drainage, waste disposal systems and deforestation can cause serious environmental degradation, harm the health, and create safety risks as well as conflict with host communities. Establish monitoring and maintenance systems and regular sensitization programmes to reduce the incidence of such problems, which are costly and difficult to resolve.
Other risks • Variation in level of services available. Differences in the services available in camps can create a pull factor towards camps perceived to treat residents more favourably. This can cause tensions between camp residents and humanitarian actors. Such issues need to be managed with care; good two-way communication and coordination are important. • Camp coordination in displacement settings can be a challenge, especially in new crises, if resources are limited, programmes are unfunded, or few organizations are equipped to undertake camp management responsibilities. A well-coordinated response needs operational resources to support camp management partners. • Information management capacity is critical to effective camp coordination. In L3 emergencies a dedicated CCCM information management officer should be appointed.
Key decision points • How to implement the response?Within the first months of a new emergency context, the CCCM sector should address the following key concerns: • Governance structures; • Information management; • Coordinate and monitor service provision; • Establish local standards; • Establish predictable two-way communication systems; • Develop strategy; • Camp closure; • Contingency planning; • Solutions; • Cross cutting issues; • CCCM capacity-building; • Participation; • Protect by being present.
Key decision points • preparedness phase, country operations should ensure that the roles and responsibilities of camp management are well understood by staff and partners. • The Contingency Plan should clearly state who will take specific responsibilities in relation to camp management and coordination, and should indicate the trigger or threshold at which these roles will be assumed. • In IDP contexts, it is important to take clear decisions on activating the CCCM cluster. • spontaneously settled unplanned camps, clear decisionsneed to be made on how to approach displacement.
Key steps • Preparedness. The steps below should be taken when it appears that an emergency is likely to occur in the near future. • Raise awareness of CCCM roles and responsibilities; • Contingency Planning; • Monitoring site evolution; pre-emergency staff evaluation. • Emergency phase. The following steps should be taken once the threshold for CCCM is triggered (as set out in contingency plans). • Develop a strategy • Contribute to site identification and planning. • Establish a camp governance committee. • Build stakeholder capacity. • Establish coordination mechanisms. • Set up an information management system. • Establish two-way communication with the camp population. • Conduct regular audits. • Monitor camp-based activities for gaps and duplication.
Key management considerations • CCCM mechanisms need to be planned, established and budgeted as early as possible. • CCCM roles and responsibilities need to be discussed and clearly delineated in writing • Identify and train potential camp management NGO partners and national authority partners as early as possible, ideally during contingency planning. • The scope of a CCCM response also needs to be made clear. • Staff with CCCM expertise should be identified as early as possible. Ideally one person should be appointed full time to coordinate the camp-based response, supported by IM capacity.
Resources and partnerships • Staff • Partners • Material resources • Financial resources • Adequate financial resources are essential. The following elements should be taken into consideration: • UNHCR staff for coordination. • Camp management implementing partners. • Care and maintenance. • Camp committees. • Camp Closure. Resources should be earmarked for camp closure and rehabilitation, so that sites can be returned to their original state.
CCCM Activities • The key activities for CCCM are to: • Create access and delivery of humanitarian services to communal settings • Ensure effective coordination of humanitarian services and actors in communal settings • Identify gaps and needs in terms of protection and assistance in and among communal settings • Provide partners with systematic information on residents (mindful of the importance of sex- and age-disaggregated data), humanitarian services and gaps in collective settings • Ensure that assistance and protection is provided uniformly in all communal settings in line with common technical standards and policy guidance
CCCM Activities • Ensure systematic and meaningful participation of the displaced communities in all aspects of camp life • Ensure development of an overall camp/settlement response strategy involving all partners including beneficiaries and governmental representatives • Links assistance provided in communal settings with return and reintegration policy that includes durable solutions. • Ensure mainstreaming of cross-cutting issues including protection, environment, HIV/AIDS and age, gender and diversity
Collecting and Sharing Information: Why? • Precise information about the camp population and their needs will determine the services provided in the IDP camp.
Biography • CM TOOLKIT - Resources for practitioners working with displaced communities, http://cmtoolkit.org/chapters/view/about-camp-management
QUESTIONS THANK YOU YOUR KIND ATTENTION!