The California Missions How should we assess and teach about the missions in 2019?
Spain explored the Pacific Coast of California1539-1602 Sailing by CA, Spain claimed it as part of the Spanish Empire
‘New Spain’ by 1615 Following Vizcaino’s exploration of California in 1603, Spain did not return to California for 166 years !
Spain started getting worried about its land claims in Alta CA English Francis Drake
When Spain claimed ownership of coastal California in 1542,the land was occupied by many Native cultural and language groups. In 1769, it was time for Spain to occupy Alta California
Leaders of the Conquestin Alta California1769 Fr. Junípero Serra The Missions Gaspar de Portolá The Military
Spain’s Colonial Goalin Alta California To turn native Indians into loyal Spanish citizens and productive farmers. (in about 10 years !) • Obedience • Christianity • Spanish Language • Spanish Values and Culture • Farming Skills
California Mission Period End 1834 Start 1769 Mexican Revolution 1810-1821 Spanish Missions 52 Years Mexican Missions 13 Years
Mexico War of Independence1810-1821 Treaty of Córdoba 1821 Mexico Map 1821
Spanish/Mexican Colonial Strategyand the Native Population Spain 1769-1821 Mexico 1821-1834 Committed to deconstructing and ending the missions. Committed to building, operating, and sustaining the missions.
California Missions • Started by Spain 1769, 277 yrs. after Columbus • Controlled by Spain 1769-1821 • Controlled by Mexico 1821-1834 Mexico closed the missions in 1834, after 65 years • US took control of the area in 1848 • Missions closed 182 years ago.
Saints or Sinners ? Part 1 Part 2
Negative Histories of the CA Missions
CA Native Perspectives on the Missions • The Missions of CA by R.J. Adams • Junipero Serra Sainthood? • In Support of Serra Sainthood • Native Americans Oppose Serra Sainthood