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Energy Technologies for the Poor Technology for poverty alleviation: Relevance and Prospects in South Asia October 10-11 PowerPoint Presentation
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Energy Technologies for the Poor Technology for poverty alleviation: Relevance and Prospects in South Asia October 10-11, 2003 British Council, New Delhi Bikash Pandey Country Representative, Nepal Winrock International. bpandey@winrock.org.np

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Energy Technologies for the Poor

Technology for poverty alleviation: Relevance and Prospects in South Asia

October 10-11, 2003

British Council, New Delhi

Bikash Pandey

Country Representative, Nepal

Winrock International.

bpandey@winrock.org.np

where do the poor in south asia get their energy from
Where do the poor in South Asia get their energy from?
  • South Asia poor: dollar poor < $2/day 84%, <$1/day 41%, calorie poor 29%.
  • Biomass – cooking, heating. Primary energy 70% of population.
  • Biomass meets 33% (India, Pakistan) to > 80% (Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh).
  • Fossil fuel increasing - urban, biomass % decreasing but absolute amounts increasing into future.
  • Transportation needs met by fossil fuels.
  • Milling, water pumping, lighting, communications powered by national grid, diesel, or small-scale renewables.
meeting millennium development goals role of energy services
Meeting Millennium Development Goals – role of energy services
  • Halving extreme poverty
  • Halving the number of people living with hunger
  • Achieving universal education
  • Promoting gender equality
  • Reducing mortality/improving health
  • Ensuring environmental sustainability
practical ways to meet goals
Practical ways to meet goals
  • Use both centralized and decentralized services, innovatively.
  • Distributed services – non-electricity services, multiple institutions, polycentric, lower cost, shared investment by users.
  • Grid expansion – expensive but more versatile. Need for community mobilization.
rural energy services nepal
Rural Energy Services - Nepal
  • 80,000 new households on grid per year, 30,000 in rural areas. < population increase. Money loser for utility.
  • Decentralized energy services – together reaching around 120,000 new households each year, all in rural areas:
    • Biogas: 20,000 Mainstream or alternative?
    • Solar PV: 15,000
    • Micro-hydro:10,000
    • Micro-hydro milling: 25,000
    • Improved cook stoves: 50,000
    • > 2/3rds investment by users.
decentralized rural energy services biogas
Decentralized Rural Energy Services - Biogas
  • Implemented by Biogas Support Programme.
  • Family biogas plants: 100,000 installed by end of 2002; Around 20,000 new plants being installed in 2003.
  • Indicators of success
    • > 98% functioning well.
    • Real prices reduced by 30% in 10 years.
    • Feeding rate increased to 98%.
    • Average size down to 6.02 m3.
    • Higher per capita than India and catching up with China!
  • Successful model based on
    • Intelligently designed program
    • Independence in implementation
    • High Quality and Reliable Product!
rural energy services biogas
Rural Energy Services - Biogas
  • Subsidy effectively used to leverage:
    • high quality installations and competition among 40 private suppliers;
    • Quality of after sales support;
    • Increase feeding rate by promoting smaller plants.
  • Substantial social benefits
    • Reduction in fuel collection, cooking and cleaning time of 3 hours a day
    • Health benefits from reduction in indoor air pollution
    • Better compost
    • Reduced deforestation and CO2 emissions
  • Global benefits: Plant pays for itself with the CO2 emissions abated over its life – 100 tons of CO2.
challenges to mainstreaming distributed energy services
Challenges to Mainstreaming Distributed Energy Services
  • Models
    • Replication of working models
      • Market – based with Quality control, biogas and solar PV,
      • Community Mobilization, micro-hydro, plantations,
      • Scaling up numbers, capacity building.
    • New models needed
      • Making micro-credit available to the RET sector.
      • Income generation coupled with RET promotion. HELP.
      • Peoples’ participation in extending centralized services.
challenges
Challenges
  • Broadening of vision of “energy for the poor”
      • Non-electricity services
      • Centralized and decentralized working together
  • Keeping the focus - Sustainable long term funding from government, levy on commercial energy, carbon - CDM.
  • Governance - Keeping programs robust against political interference and corruption.