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Light Brown Apple Moth and Related Species in California W. K. Frankie Lam, Ph.D. Entomologist wflam@ucdavis.edu (831) 759-7359 University of California Cooperative Extension Monterey County Characteristics of Insects Animals with jointed legs (Arthropods)

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slide1

Light Brown Apple Moth

and Related Species in California

W. K. Frankie Lam, Ph.D.

Entomologist

wflam@ucdavis.edu (831) 759-7359

University of California Cooperative Extension

Monterey County

slide2

Characteristics of Insects

  • Animals with jointed legs (Arthropods)
  • Exoskeleton and bilateral body
  • 3 body regions (head, thorax, and abdomen)
  • 3 pairs of legs and 0 - 2 pairs of wings
slide3

Order: Lepidoptera

Butterflies and Moths

  • The insect has stages of egg, larva, pupa, and adult
  • Adults have 2 pairs of membranous wings
  • Body, wings, and legs are usually with scales
  • Eggs are laid on hosts and larvae feed on leaves, stems,
  • and flowers

Scaly Wing of Imperial Moth

Scales

slide4

Mouthparts of adults are developed into a long, coiled

  • structure for sucking (proboscis) and feed on nectar
  • Larvae (caterpillars or worms) have true legs and prolegs
  • Larvae usually pupate on the hosts or in the soil

Head

Thorax

Abdomen

True leg

Proleg

Proboscis of Hawkmoth

Eightspotted Forester larva

slide5

Family: Tortricidae

Leafrollers

  • Adults have a 0.25-1.25 inch wingspan
  • Adults are usually gray, tan, or brown
  • Antennae are usually threadlike (filiform)
  • Wings have dark bands or mottled areas, and occasionally
  • with metallic spots
  • Front wings are usually rather square-tipped

Front wing

Hind wing

Light Brown Apple Moth

slide6

Front wings of some male moths have costal folds with

  • scales or hairs
  • Larvae with 6 simple eyes (stemmata) on each side of
  • the head capsule
  • - 5 simple eyes are linked by a black arc that encloses
  • a white callus
  • - The 6th simple eye is located alone below the callus

Head capsule

Simple eye

Callus

Costal Fold of

Light Brown Apple Moth

Photo by Scott Kinnee and Marc Epstein, CDFA

slide7

Anal comb located at the end of larval abdomen

  • Larvae usually roll the leaf or leaves and fruit together
  • with webbing and feed inside (hence, leafrollers)
  • Larvae wriggle vigorously backwards when disturbed

Anal Comb of Oriental Fruit Moth

Fruittree Leafroller

slide8

Obtect pupae: Wings and appendages of the pupae are

  • appressed to (pressed against) the body and most of the
  • abdominal segments are immovable
  • Shinglelike egg masses are laid on leaves

Shinglelike Egg Mass of

Omnivorous Leafroller

Obtect Pupa of

Fruittree Leafroller

slide9

Light Brown Apple Moth, Epiphyas postvittana

  • Native to Australia and has 3 - 4 generations per year,
  • depending on the latitude
  • Introduced to Tasmania, New Zealand, England,
  • New Calendonia, and Hawaii
  • Very similar in size and appearance to other leafroller
  • species in California
  • Have a wingspan of
  • 0.67 inch in male and
  • 1 inch in female moths

Female

Male

slide10

Light brown moths with varying amounts of dark brown

  • areas on front wings
  • Extremely variable species with different wing patterns
  • between males and females and among individuals
  • Male moth with costal folds on front wings

2 Male Light Brown Apple Moths(Scale = 0.15 inch)

Photo by Scott Kinnee and Marc Epstein, CDFA

slide11

Fully grown larvae are pale green (common in leafrollers)

  • - Male larvae are about 0.33 inch long
  • - Female larvae are about 0.67 inch long
  • Larvae with 6 simple eyes
  • Anal comb at the end
  • of larval abdomen
  • Obtect pupa
  • Shinglelike egg mass

Light Brown Apple Moth Larva

Photo by Scott Kinnee and Marc Epstein, CDFA

slide12

Other Leafroller Moths in California

Apple Pandemis, Pandemis pyrusana

  • 2 - 3 generations per year
  • Larvae are greenish yellow with straw-colored head
  • Adults are light brown to rusty color with bands on the
  • front wings
  • UC IPM Guidelines: Apple and caneberries
  • http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu
slide13

Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella

  • 2 - 4 generations per year
  • White caterpillars with black or brown heads
  • About 0.5 to 0.75 inch long when fully grown
  • Pupate in soil or in bark crevices
slide14

Adults are mottled gray moth about 0.5 to 0.75 inch long

  • Tiny disc-shaped eggs are laid singly on leaves, fruits,
  • and nuts
  • UC IPM Guidelines: Gardens and landscape, apple, pear,
  • plum, prune, and walnut
slide15

Fruittree Leafroller, Archips argyrospila

  • 1 generation per year
  • Larvae wriggle vigorously when disturbed and hang on
  • the plant or drop to the ground with a silken thread
slide16

Larvae roll leaves together with silken

  • thread and feed inside the nests
  • Green larva with dark brown head
  • and a tan plate behind the head
  • Mature larvae pupate inside the
  • nests
slide17

Adults are bell-shaped moth with dark brown bands

  • about 0.6 to 0.8 inch long
  • Egg masses are laid on twigs
  • UC IPM Guidelines: Gardens and landscape, almond,
  • apple, apricot, cherry, citrus, nectarine, peach, pear,
  • plum, and prune
slide18

Garden Tortrix, Ptycholoma peritana

  • 2 - 4 generations per year
  • Larvae are light green with light brown heads about
  • 0.5 inch long when mature
  • Moths are light brown and bell-shaped about 0.25 inch long
  • Front wing has a marginal spot and a dark diagonal stripe
  • UC IPM Guidelines: Strawberries
slide19

Obliquebanded Leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana

  • 2 - 3 generations per year
  • Greenish yellow larvae with dark heads
  • 2nd or 3rd larval stages overwinter in a silken case
  • Adults are reddish brown moths with dark-brown,
  • oblique bands on wings
  • UC IPM Guidelines: Almond, apple, apricot, cherry,
  • nectarine, peach, pear, pistachio, plum, and prune
slide20

Omnivorous Leafroller, Platynota stultana

  • Greenish brown larvae with brown heads
  • Mature larvae have white knoblike or round structure
  • (tubercles) with hair (seta) protruding on the top of
  • abdomen
slide21

Adults are dark brown moths with rusty tan color on the

  • tips of front wings
  • Adults are about 0.4 inch long
  • Shinglelike egg masses are laid on leaves
  • UC IPM Guidelines: Apple, citrus, cotton, grape, nectarine,
  • peach, pear, pepper, and plum
slide22

Orange Tortrix, Argyrotaenia franciscana

  • 3 generations per year
  • Green or straw-colored larvae with brown heads
  • Prothoracic shield is located behind the head on the thorax
  • Mature larvae are about 0.5 inch long
  • Larvae wriggle sideways or backwards when disturbed

Prothoracic shield

slide23

Adults are orange brown bell-shaped moths about

  • 0.5 inch long
  • A fainted V-shaped marking is usually located on the
  • front wings when at rest
  • Shinglelike egg masses are laid on leaves
  • UC IPM Guidelines: Apple, apricot, avocado, cherry,
  • citrus, grape, pear, pepper, plum, and prune

Female

Male

slide24

Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta

  • 5 - 6 generations per year
  • White larvae with black heads when hatched; turn pink
  • with brown heads when mature
  • Mature larvae are about 0.5 inch long
  • Anal comb at the end of the larval abdomen
slide25

Larvae feed on shoot terminals and fruits

  • Larvae pupate on shoots or fruits
  • Adult oriental fruit moths are grayish moths about
  • 0.4 inch long
  • UC IPM Guidelines: Almond, nectarine, and peach
slide26

Western Avocado Leafroller (Amorbia), Amorbia cuneana

  • 2 - 3 generations per year
  • Primarily pest on avocado and occasionally on citrus
  • 2 horizontal lines on each side of the head and on the
  • shield behind the head
  • Prothoracic shield is located behind the head on the thorax
  • Mature larvae are about 0.75 inch long

Prothoracic

shield

slide27

Larvae roll the leaves or tie leaves to fruit

  • Larvae pupate on leaves inside the nests
  • Orange to tan moths with dark markings on front wings
  • Adults are about 1 inch long
  • UC IPM Guidelines: Avocado and citrus

Male

Female

slide28

Family: Dioptidae

Oakworms

California Oakworm, Phryganidia californica

  • 2 - 3 generations per year
  • Larvae are variable in color, but commonly are dark
  • with prominent yellow or olive stripes
  • Larvae are about 1 inch long when fully grown
slide29

Adults are tan to gray moth with characteristics wing

  • veins and about 0.75 inch long
  • Antennae of male moths are large and branched on 2 sides
  • (bipectinate) when compared with those of the females

Male

Female

slide30

Pupae are pale yellow with black lines and dots

  • Tiny, white eggs are laid in groups on leaves and twigs
  • UC IPM Guidelines: Gardens and Landscape