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W. K. Frankie Lam, Ph.D.

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  1. Light Brown Apple Moth and Related Species in California W. K. Frankie Lam, Ph.D. Entomologist wflam@ucdavis.edu (831) 759-7359 University of California Cooperative Extension Monterey County

  2. Characteristics of Insects • Animals with jointed legs (Arthropods) • Exoskeleton and bilateral body • 3 body regions (head, thorax, and abdomen) • 3 pairs of legs and 0 - 2 pairs of wings

  3. Order: Lepidoptera Butterflies and Moths • The insect has stages of egg, larva, pupa, and adult • Adults have 2 pairs of membranous wings • Body, wings, and legs are usually with scales • Eggs are laid on hosts and larvae feed on leaves, stems, • and flowers Scaly Wing of Imperial Moth Scales

  4. Mouthparts of adults are developed into a long, coiled • structure for sucking (proboscis) and feed on nectar • Larvae (caterpillars or worms) have true legs and prolegs • Larvae usually pupate on the hosts or in the soil Head Thorax Abdomen True leg Proleg Proboscis of Hawkmoth Eightspotted Forester larva

  5. Family: Tortricidae Leafrollers • Adults have a 0.25-1.25 inch wingspan • Adults are usually gray, tan, or brown • Antennae are usually threadlike (filiform) • Wings have dark bands or mottled areas, and occasionally • with metallic spots • Front wings are usually rather square-tipped Front wing Hind wing Light Brown Apple Moth

  6. Front wings of some male moths have costal folds with • scales or hairs • Larvae with 6 simple eyes (stemmata) on each side of • the head capsule • - 5 simple eyes are linked by a black arc that encloses • a white callus • - The 6th simple eye is located alone below the callus Head capsule Simple eye Callus Costal Fold of Light Brown Apple Moth Photo by Scott Kinnee and Marc Epstein, CDFA

  7. Anal comb located at the end of larval abdomen • Larvae usually roll the leaf or leaves and fruit together • with webbing and feed inside (hence, leafrollers) • Larvae wriggle vigorously backwards when disturbed Anal Comb of Oriental Fruit Moth Fruittree Leafroller

  8. Obtect pupae: Wings and appendages of the pupae are • appressed to (pressed against) the body and most of the • abdominal segments are immovable • Shinglelike egg masses are laid on leaves Shinglelike Egg Mass of Omnivorous Leafroller Obtect Pupa of Fruittree Leafroller

  9. Light Brown Apple Moth, Epiphyas postvittana • Native to Australia and has 3 - 4 generations per year, • depending on the latitude • Introduced to Tasmania, New Zealand, England, • New Calendonia, and Hawaii • Very similar in size and appearance to other leafroller • species in California • Have a wingspan of • 0.67 inch in male and • 1 inch in female moths Female Male

  10. Light brown moths with varying amounts of dark brown • areas on front wings • Extremely variable species with different wing patterns • between males and females and among individuals • Male moth with costal folds on front wings 2 Male Light Brown Apple Moths(Scale = 0.15 inch) Photo by Scott Kinnee and Marc Epstein, CDFA

  11. Fully grown larvae are pale green (common in leafrollers) • - Male larvae are about 0.33 inch long • - Female larvae are about 0.67 inch long • Larvae with 6 simple eyes • Anal comb at the end • of larval abdomen • Obtect pupa • Shinglelike egg mass Light Brown Apple Moth Larva Photo by Scott Kinnee and Marc Epstein, CDFA

  12. Other Leafroller Moths in California Apple Pandemis, Pandemis pyrusana • 2 - 3 generations per year • Larvae are greenish yellow with straw-colored head • Adults are light brown to rusty color with bands on the • front wings • UC IPM Guidelines: Apple and caneberries • http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu

  13. Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella • 2 - 4 generations per year • White caterpillars with black or brown heads • About 0.5 to 0.75 inch long when fully grown • Pupate in soil or in bark crevices

  14. Adults are mottled gray moth about 0.5 to 0.75 inch long • Tiny disc-shaped eggs are laid singly on leaves, fruits, • and nuts • UC IPM Guidelines: Gardens and landscape, apple, pear, • plum, prune, and walnut

  15. Fruittree Leafroller, Archips argyrospila • 1 generation per year • Larvae wriggle vigorously when disturbed and hang on • the plant or drop to the ground with a silken thread

  16. Larvae roll leaves together with silken • thread and feed inside the nests • Green larva with dark brown head • and a tan plate behind the head • Mature larvae pupate inside the • nests

  17. Adults are bell-shaped moth with dark brown bands • about 0.6 to 0.8 inch long • Egg masses are laid on twigs • UC IPM Guidelines: Gardens and landscape, almond, • apple, apricot, cherry, citrus, nectarine, peach, pear, • plum, and prune

  18. Garden Tortrix, Ptycholoma peritana • 2 - 4 generations per year • Larvae are light green with light brown heads about • 0.5 inch long when mature • Moths are light brown and bell-shaped about 0.25 inch long • Front wing has a marginal spot and a dark diagonal stripe • UC IPM Guidelines: Strawberries

  19. Obliquebanded Leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana • 2 - 3 generations per year • Greenish yellow larvae with dark heads • 2nd or 3rd larval stages overwinter in a silken case • Adults are reddish brown moths with dark-brown, • oblique bands on wings • UC IPM Guidelines: Almond, apple, apricot, cherry, • nectarine, peach, pear, pistachio, plum, and prune

  20. Omnivorous Leafroller, Platynota stultana • Greenish brown larvae with brown heads • Mature larvae have white knoblike or round structure • (tubercles) with hair (seta) protruding on the top of • abdomen

  21. Adults are dark brown moths with rusty tan color on the • tips of front wings • Adults are about 0.4 inch long • Shinglelike egg masses are laid on leaves • UC IPM Guidelines: Apple, citrus, cotton, grape, nectarine, • peach, pear, pepper, and plum

  22. Orange Tortrix, Argyrotaenia franciscana • 3 generations per year • Green or straw-colored larvae with brown heads • Prothoracic shield is located behind the head on the thorax • Mature larvae are about 0.5 inch long • Larvae wriggle sideways or backwards when disturbed Prothoracic shield

  23. Adults are orange brown bell-shaped moths about • 0.5 inch long • A fainted V-shaped marking is usually located on the • front wings when at rest • Shinglelike egg masses are laid on leaves • UC IPM Guidelines: Apple, apricot, avocado, cherry, • citrus, grape, pear, pepper, plum, and prune Female Male

  24. Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta • 5 - 6 generations per year • White larvae with black heads when hatched; turn pink • with brown heads when mature • Mature larvae are about 0.5 inch long • Anal comb at the end of the larval abdomen

  25. Larvae feed on shoot terminals and fruits • Larvae pupate on shoots or fruits • Adult oriental fruit moths are grayish moths about • 0.4 inch long • UC IPM Guidelines: Almond, nectarine, and peach

  26. Western Avocado Leafroller (Amorbia), Amorbia cuneana • 2 - 3 generations per year • Primarily pest on avocado and occasionally on citrus • 2 horizontal lines on each side of the head and on the • shield behind the head • Prothoracic shield is located behind the head on the thorax • Mature larvae are about 0.75 inch long Prothoracic shield

  27. Larvae roll the leaves or tie leaves to fruit • Larvae pupate on leaves inside the nests • Orange to tan moths with dark markings on front wings • Adults are about 1 inch long • UC IPM Guidelines: Avocado and citrus Male Female

  28. Family: Dioptidae Oakworms California Oakworm, Phryganidia californica • 2 - 3 generations per year • Larvae are variable in color, but commonly are dark • with prominent yellow or olive stripes • Larvae are about 1 inch long when fully grown

  29. Adults are tan to gray moth with characteristics wing • veins and about 0.75 inch long • Antennae of male moths are large and branched on 2 sides • (bipectinate) when compared with those of the females Male Female

  30. Pupae are pale yellow with black lines and dots • Tiny, white eggs are laid in groups on leaves and twigs • UC IPM Guidelines: Gardens and Landscape