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LEARNING AND THE BRAIN. Teaching that Works: Issues in Vocational & Technical Education Instruction. Central Carolina Community College November 17, 2005. Primary Sources. Caine, Caine, McClintic and Klimek (2004). Leamnson (1999). Zull (2002).

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slide1

LEARNING AND THE BRAIN

Teaching that Works:

Issues in Vocational & Technical Education Instruction

Central Carolina Community College

November 17, 2005

slide2

Primary Sources

  • Caine, Caine, McClintic and Klimek (2004)
  • Leamnson (1999)
  • Zull (2002)
slide3

THE BRAIN’S ABILITY TO VISUALIZE IS ARGUABLY THE MOST SIGNIFICANT ASPECT OF COGNITION. WHEN WE WANT PEOPLE TO LEARN, WE WANT THEM TO “GET THE PICTURE.”

James Zull (2002). The Art of Changing

the Brain, P. 138.

“Comprehension often requires us to make images out of language. This is possibly the ultimate in integration by the human brain.”

Zull, P. 171

slide4

Draw a picture

of your

typical

student(s).

Then…add some

descriptive

language.

slide5

POWERFUL LEARNING

  • Use note cards
  • Reflect about a powerful learning experience
  • On the card: Briefly describe the experience. What did you do
  • that was powerful? Others do? Leader or teacher do?
  • What was the ESSENCE of the experience?
  • In groups at your tables: Consolidate the qualities and
  • characteristics of your experiences onto the large sheet of paper.
  • Put the sheet on the wall.
  • Strategy: Museum Walk
  • What do you notice?
slide6

Powerful Learning

  • What you learn…
  • How you learn…
  • Where you learn…

NATURAL LEARNING

slide7

What are powerful learning

experiences for your students?

  • What...
  • Personally meaningful
  • Challenging (and they accept the challenge)
  • Appropriate for developmental level
  • How…
  • In their own way, with choices and in control
  • Use what they already know…construct
  • Social interaction
  • Get helpful feedback
  • Acquire and use strategies

PROCESSING…

  • Where…
  • Positive emotional climate
  • Environment supports the intended learning

Brandt, R. (1998). Powerful Learning.

slide8

BASED UPON OUR DIALOGUE ABOUT POWERFUL LEARNING:

  • WHAT DO YOU WISH FOR YOUR STUDENTS? (In your discipline/area)
  • WHAT DOES YOUR IDEAL STUDENT LOOK LIKE? SOUND LIKE?

PROCESSING…

slide9

DIFFERENTIATION…

  • How well prepared are students to
  • learn the content in your class?
  • What are their interests?
  • What are their learning profiles?
  • What is their typical physical/emotional state
  • when learning? How do they feel about themselves and their work?
slide10

What do we know about how the brain

learns and processes information?

  • Strategies:
  • Note Cards
  • Think/Pair/Share
slide11

Listen for key ideas and words….

VIDEO: DISCOVERY CHANNEL

The Brain/Our Universe Within

Evolution and Perception

1997, Discovery Communication, Inc.

PROCESSING…

At your tables: What did you already know?

What did you learn? What surprised you?

slide12

THINKING MEANS CONNECTING THINGS, AND

  • STOPS IF THEY CANNOT BE CONNECTED.
  • Gilbert Keith Chesterton
  • So what?
  • Says who?
  • What if…?
  • What does this remind me of?

Four Powerful

Questions

The brain searches

for connections.

Adam Robinson (1993) What Smart Students Know.

slide13

What is brain-based learning?

  • Expanded notion of what learning is that has been reframed by neuroscience research.
  • Maximizes everything that is natural about learning.
  • Involves acknowledging the brain’s rules for meaningful learning and organizing teaching with those rules in mind.

Caine & Caine, 2004

slide15

Kolb: The Learning Cycle

  • Ideas for learning from the structure of the brain

Teaching/Learning Academy: Valencia Community College

slide16

Can’t Separate Emotion and Cognition

Emotion and Thought Shape Each Other — Cannot be Separated

Teaching/Learning Academy

Valencia Community College

slide18

THE 12 PRINCIPLES OF BRAIN/MIND LEARNING

Geoffrey and Renate Nummela-Caine

The principles provide a framework for “…selecting the methodologies that will maximize learning and make teaching more effective and fulfilling.”

Caine & Caine

slide19

Three Interactive Teaching Elements

Relaxed Alertness

Orchestrated

Immersion

Active Processing

relaxed alertness emotional climate
Relaxed Alertness(Emotional Climate)
  • The learner is experiencing low threat and high challenge
  • The learner is both relaxed and emotionally engaged
  • Is a psychopysiological state…can be temporary
  • Optimal climate and state of mind for learner and teacher

Once the physical patterns have been set by previous experiences, only new experiences can alter them.

Principles #2, 3 ,5, & 11

slide22

ACTIVE PROCESSING

(Consolidation)

  • Digesting…
  • Thinking about…
  • Reflecting on…
  • Making sense of experience…
  • And consolidating learning.

Principles #7, 8, 9 & 12.

slide23

What is Knowledge?

  • Brain imaging technology allows us to see knowledge
  • Connections we make through our own experience
  • Experiences mapped in unique ways
  • Complicated connections
  • Networks unique to each learner and teacher

Zull, James. League for Innovations Conference. March, 2005

From: Teaching/Learning Academy, Valencia Community College

slide24

Learning Capacities

  • Engage:
  • Social Interactions
  • The physiology
  • Their search for meaning
  • Capacity to master essential patterns
  • Emotional connections
  • Ability to perceive parts and wholes
  • Focus attention/learn from peripheral content
  • Conscious and unconscious processing
  • Capacity to learn from memorizing isolated facts and bio events
  • Developmental steps and shifts
  • Reduce threat, enhance self-efficacy
  • Individual styles and uniqueness

Relaxed-Alert State * Immersion in Complex Experience *

Active Processing

  • Best Practices:
  • Student-Centered
  • Experiential
  • Holistic
  • Authentic
  • Expressive
  • Reflective
  • Social
  • Collaborative
  • Democratic
  • Cognitive
  • Developmental
  • Constructivist
  • Challenging
  • Executive Functions
  • The ability to:
  • reason
  • assess risk
  • make sense of ideas and behavior
  • moderate their emotions
  • make aplan and develop a timeline
  • know when toask forhelp and know how to use resources
  • adapt their goals based upon new info or
  • understandings along their journey
  • think critically and creatively
  • reflect and be self-critical
  • understand their own approaches to learning
  • take other people’s points of view
  • anticipate potential problems and opportunities that effect the outcome of their goals
  • access their working memory to lead their thinking and next steps in planning
  • James Zull:
  • Sensory/Experience
  • Integration
  • Developing Abstraction/Exec Functions
  • Active Testing of Abstractions/Application

www.2perspectives.org

slide25

Leamnson…

Learning: Stabilizing, through repeated use, certain appropriate and desirable synapses in the brain. Building new brain connections.

Leamnson, R. (1999). Thinking About Teaching and Learning.

PROCESSING…

slide26

IDEAS

  • Energizers: Get up from the chair often.
  • Honor diversity: Use both variety and choice.
  • Use peripherals.
  • Set goals.
  • Provide a topic template or model (patterns).
  • Use positive suggestion.
  • Absence of threat is critical.
  • Smile.
  • Get global.
  • Engage emotions.
  • Build relationships.
slide27

Strategies/Skills

  • WRITING & COMMUNICATION
  • THE LECTURE
fundamentals
Fundamentals:
  • Relaxed alert state
  • Experience
  • Reflection/Consolidation
  • Developing abstractions
  • Active testing of abstractions
  • A context rich in resources of all kinds
  • Modeling and guidance, coupled with examples of expert work
  • Complexity that exposes students to both basic and sophisticated performance

Creative Sources

slide29

It’s

a

powerful

experience!