Propaganda - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Propaganda

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  1. Propaganda & Persuasion

  2. Persuasion • A communication process to influence others • Recipient voluntarily adopts new behavior or point of view • Mutually satisfying • Both persuader & persuadee stand to have needs fulfilled

  3. Propaganda Deliberate & systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate congitions & direct behavior Goal is to further cause of propagandist No concern for well-being of recipient Though propagandist may profess concern

  4. Propaganda Ultimate goal is to control public opinion & manipulate behavior • Voting • Buying products • Joining an organization • Fighting for a cause • Etc.

  5. Propaganda often involves • Concealed purpose • Concealed identity • Control of information flow

  6. Propaganda devices: • Play on emotion • Avoid objectivity • Discourage examination of evidence • Often rely on symbols • Are most effective when there is a vacuum of info around an issue

  7. Historically effective elements of propaganda • Charismatic figures • Heavy symbolism • Simple & incessant moral philosophy • Understanding of audience needs • Reliance on image & emotion

  8. Propaganda throughout history • Generally in support of war or religion • Architecture & public monuments • Prestige & dynastic legitimacy

  9. Alexander the Great • Symbolism of marriage Caesars of Imperial Rome • “corporate symbolism” • Art, architecture, literature, coinage

  10. Religious propaganda • Often aimed at positive social or political purpose • Parables & metaphors • Eye of the camel, shepherd & flock • Crusades: religion & war

  11. Forms of propaganda White propaganda • Source is correctly identified • Info is accurate • Attempts to build credibility

  12. Examples of white propaganda • Voice of America • National holidays • Olympics

  13. Black Propaganda • Credited to a false source • Spreads lies, fabrications & deceptions Examples of black propaganda • WWII radio • leaflets

  14. Gray Propaganda • Source may or may not be correctly identified • Accuracy of info is uncertain • Examples of gray propaganda • Distorted statistics • Unsupported advertising claims

  15. Disinformation(black propaganda) • False, incomplete or misleading info fed to targeted individual, group or country • News stories designed to weaken adversaries, planted by foreign agent journalists

  16. Subpropaganda(facilitative communication) • Spreading of unfamiliar doctrine to build base of support for future use • Builds friendly atmosphere & keeps lines of communication open for eventual use of propaganda tactics • Often, though not always, aimed at news media

  17. Hate propaganda(atrocity stories) Sometimes true But often exaggerated and/or fabricated • Massacre • Mutilation • Mistreatment

  18. Coercive Propaganda Brainwashing of prisoners Integration Propaganda Maintains the status quo Agitation Propaganda Arouse support for a cause

  19. 7 Common Propaganda Devices Name calling • Giving an ideal a bad label Glittering generality • Association with a “virtue” word Transfer • Of respect & authority

  20. Testimonial • Respected or hated person speaks for an issue Plain Folks • “of the people” Card Stacking • Best or worse case Band Wagon • “everybody is doing it”

  21. Two more common devices Fear Appeals • Disaster will ensue Euphemisms • “Nice” words

  22. Reasons for growth in use of propaganda in 19th & 20th centuries • Development of democratic institutions • Improvements in transportation & communication • Growth of mass media • bypasses traditional socializing institutions

  23. Emergence of mass audience • Growth in advertising • consumer advertising tactics used to market politics

  24. News Media & Propaganda • Whenever possible, propagandists attempt to control the news media. • The role of the news media in propaganda varies according to country and culture. • In an open society, the news media are more often channels of propaganda than actual propagandists.

  25. When the state controls the news media, they are often utilized for propaganda purposes. • New technologies provide opportunities for propagandists (& counter-propagandists)