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Prejudice and Stereotyping. Important Definitions. Ethnocentrism Stereotypes Prejudice and Racism Ethnic and Other Prejudices Allport (1954) Discrimination Clark & Clark, 1953; Beuf, 1977. Ethnocentrism (Wade and Tavris, 1999).

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Presentation Transcript
important definitions
Important Definitions
  • Ethnocentrism
  • Stereotypes
  • Prejudice and Racism
  • Ethnic and Other Prejudices
  • Allport (1954)
  • Discrimination
  • Clark & Clark, 1953; Beuf, 1977
ethnocentrism wade and tavris 1999
Ethnocentrism(Wade and Tavris, 1999)
  • The belief that one’s own cultural or ethnic group is superior to all others

Examples:

Chinese word for China = Center of the World

Navajo term for selves = “The People”

Manifested in beliefs that 1 sex, ethnicity, religion, school, community, country, SES, etc. is better than another

stereotypes wade and tavris 2000
Definition: summary impression of a group of people in which a person believes that all members of a group share a common trait or traits

Distortions Created by Stereotypes

Accentuation of group differences

Production of selective perception

Underestimation of within group differences

Stereotypes(Wade and Tavris 2000)
prejudice racism
Prejudice & Racism
  • “Prejudice and racism describe ways in which people devalue, disadvantage, demean, and in general, unfairly treat others.” (In Prejudice and Racism; Jones, 1997)
ethnic prejudice
Ethnic Prejudice
  • “Ethnic prejudice is an antipathy based upon a faulty and inflexible generalization. It may be felt or expressed. It may be directed toward a group as a whole or toward an individual because he is a member of that group.”
  • (In The Nature of Prejudice; Allport 1954)
allport revisited
Allport Revisited
  • Two important elements in his definition of prejudice:
    • Prejudice is a negative attitude
    • Prejudice puts the object of prejudice at an unjust disadvantage (i.e., prejudice is negative, unjust, and a source of disadvantage for its targets)
  • Note: Prejudice is not just about ethnicity e.g. sexism, homophobia, ableism, religionism, classism, geographicism, adultism, etc.
sources of prejudice
Sources of Prejudice
  • Socialization: passed from caregivers to children
  • Social Benefits: often brings support from others who share the same prejudice that may result in loss of support if not maintained
  • Economic Benefits & Justification of Discrimination: arises when people are in direct competition for jobs
discrimination
Discrimination
  • “Discrimination consists of negative behavior toward a person based on negative attitudes one holds toward the group to which the person belongs, or,positive behavior toward a person based on positive attributes one holds toward the group to which that person belongs.” (In Prejudice and Racism; Jones, 1997)
social consequences of prejudice and discrimination
1944 Clark, M. Changes in primary mental abilities with age

1946 The Northside Child Development Center in Harlem

Clark & Clark, 1953 Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka

1977 Beuf, A. Biting Off the Bracelet: Red Children in White America

Beauty is the Beast

Social Consequences of Prejudice and Discrimination
reducing prejudice
Reducing Prejudice
  • Education, self-esteem, and religious/spiritual conversion (prob. w/ Dutch Reform Church & Apartheid)
  • Contact hypothesis (prob. w/cliques)
  • Law (Title IX, Affirmative Action, Prop. 187, English Only)
  • Working toward a common goal
effective strategies for reducing prejudice conflict
Effective Strategies for Reducing Prejudice & Conflict
  • Both sides must cooperate for a common goal
  • Both sides must have equal status & standing
  • Both sides must believe they have the moral, legal, and economic support of authorities
  • Both sides must have opportunities to work and socialize together formally & informally

(Amir, 1994; Brewer, 1986; Kohn, 1992; Stephan & Brigham, 1985; Stephan & Stephan, 1992)