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The Answer to Free Memory, Swap, Oracle and everything A presentation about using memory where it’s needed most Christo Kutrovsky The Pythian Group 2007 April The Answer to Free Memory, Swap, Oracle and everything The 45 minutes version

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the answer to free memory swap oracle and everything

The Answer to Free Memory, Swap, Oracle and everything

A presentation about using memory where it’s needed most

Christo Kutrovsky

The Pythian Group

2007 April

the answer to free memory swap oracle and everything2

The Answer to Free Memory, Swap, Oracle and everything

The 45 minutes version

A presentation about using memory where it’s needed most

Christo Kutrovsky

The Pythian Group

2007 April

who am i
Who Am I?
  • Joined Pythian in 2003
  • Became team lead for one of Pythian's service delivery teams in 2006
  • Notable clients: Palm Coast Data, Freshdirect.com
  • Presented at Collaborate '06, '07, RMOUG
  • Special interest in 11g, RAC, Disk IO performance, and memory
  • Pythian's delegate to the 11g beta, participated at the camp level (two visits)
who is pythian
Who is Pythian?
  • Provides turnkey global data architecture and operations teams on a linear-cost-to-effort basis
  • Founded in 1997, headquartered in Ottawa, Canada, with offices in India and Australia
  • Supporting almost 100 clients worldwide and more than 600 production databases
  • Almost 50 production engineers engaged in client service delivery
  • Broad data infrastructure expertise primarily focused on Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and MySQL on enterprise hardware
agenda
Agenda
  • Types of memory
  • Virtual Memory areas
  • How do we monitor memory usage
    • And make sense of it
  • Oracle examples
  • Case studies
questions
Questions
  • How many developers
  • How many managing linux
  • How many managing unix (AIX, solaris)
  • How many have root access
  • How many have control of database memory consumption
terminology
Terminology
  • What is memory
    • The ability of a computer system to store data
types of memory
Types of Memory
  • Short term
    • RAM (memory)
  • Long term (“permament”)
    • Disk, tape (storage)
types of memory physical
Types of Memory - physical
  • CPU Registers
    • fastest, very limited
  • CPU Cache (L1/L2/L3)
    • some latency, LRU maintained
  • RAM
    • major latency (relatively), partially LRU
  • Disk
    • do something else while you wait
what is ram
What is RAM
  • Faster, temporary storage
  • A work area
  • A place where you put your data while you process it
the many caches
The Many caches

CPU Registers2 ns

CPU

Cache

8 ns

1:4

Main Memory (RAM)

100ns

1:12

CPU

Disk – Long term memory

3’000’000 ns

1:30’000

TAPE – even longer

cpu cache cpu registers
CPU Cache & CPU Registers
  • CPU Registers – your two hands (or more)
    • You use them to hold the items while you work on them
  • CPU Cache – your desk
    • You use it as a quickly accessible location to store your most used items
    • Represents your current tasks
main memory ram
Main Memory - RAM
  • RAM – Random Access Memory
  • It’s like your office
    • Need to get up from your desk to grab items to work on
    • You usually grab multiple at a time to save roundtrips
our office
Our office

Your hands2 seconds

CPU

Cache

“Desk”4 sec.

Main Memory (RAM)

“Your office”

12 seconds

CPU

Disk

“Flying to Australia”

8 hours

TAPE – use a cargo ship to go

growing your office
Growing your office
  • You always need more
  • Your “office” needs to handle all your active clients, or they will be unhappy
    • Running out of space in your office is not acceptable
the disk extending the memory
The Disk – extending the memory
  • The Solution?
  • Ship some of your least needed binders to Australia
  • Relatively complex process
    • need to find the least needed binders
    • need to know how to return them, when they are needed
introduction to virtual memory
Introduction to virtual memory
  • Processes “see” memory independently, as if it was alone on the system
  • Each process has freedom to use addresses in the whole “user address space”
  • Typically – 3 Gb user space, 1 Gb system space (on 32 bit)
virtual memory mapping
Virtual memory mapping

32 bit addressing space

0 gb

1 gb

2 gb

3 gb

4 gb

P1

P2

Reservedvirtualregion for

the system(kernel)

RAM

RAM split into 4 kb chunks

vm management
VM Management
  • Implemented via per process page table
  • Indicates:
    • page location (disk/memory)
    • page permissions (read/write/execute)
    • page attributes (ex. copy on write)
virtual memory pte table
Virtual memory PTE table

PTE Table for P1

rw – in RAM – 0xFFA

rw – in RAM – 0xFFB

RAM

in RAM – 0xFFC – copy on write

w – unallocated

rw – on disk - SWAP

rx – on disk - FILE

unallocated

FILE

SWAP

P1

additional benefits from vm
Additional benefits from VM
  • Protection
  • Features
    • memory mapped files
    • in memory file system
    • shared memory
    • shared memory – copy on write
  • Use more then what you have
concept types of memory
Concept types of memory
  • Shared
    • initially exists on disk
      • file cache(linux), buffers, system cache
    • initially does not exist on disk
      • anonymous(linux), computed(aix)
  • Private
    • does not exist on disk
    • special case copy on write
linux vm components
Linux VM Components
  • direct “user” dependant types of memory
    • Buffers (shared)
    • Cached (shared)
    • Anonymous (private or shared)
    • Hugepages
  • indirect (system) managed areas
    • Slab – kernel structures
    • PageTables
vm areas with oracle
VM areas with Oracle

System

User

SLAB

Buffers

Mapped

Anonymous

(PGA,PLSQL arrays)

Pagetables

Cached

IPC Memory (SGA)

monitoring
Monitoring

Monitoring Memory

with Oracle in mind

slide26
TOP
  • top
    • most commonly used tool
    • most confused interpretation
top sample output
top – sample output

top - 22:03:11 up 3:19, 2 users, load average: 2.98, 1.22, 0.52

Tasks: 89 total, 1 running, 88 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie

Cpu0 : 0.7% us, 0.8% sy, 0.0% ni, 0.3% id, 98.0% wa, 0.2% hi, 0.0% si

Cpu1 : 0.0% us, 0.8% sy, 0.0% ni, 97.6% id, 1.4% wa, 0.2% hi, 0.0% si

Cpu2 : 0.0% us, 0.2% sy, 0.0% ni, 99.7% id, 0.2% wa, 0.0% hi, 0.0% si

Cpu3 : 0.2% us, 0.2% sy, 0.0% ni, 33.6% id, 66.1% wa, 0.0% hi, 0.0% si

Mem: 8310308k total, 8049068k used, 261240k free, 36620k buffers

Swap: 7823644k total, 572k used, 7823072k free, 3395900k cached

PID USER PR NI VIRT RES SHR S %CPU %MEM TIME+ COMMAND

8494 oracle 16 0 1662m 1.6g 1.5g D 2.0 19.8 0:03.15 oracletest (LOCAL=YES)

4796 oracle 16 0 1626m 1.5g 1.5g S 1.0 19.5 0:03.91 ora_dbw1_test

4794 oracle 15 0 1626m 1.5g 1.5g S 0.7 19.5 0:12.23 ora_dbw0_test

4798 oracle 16 0 1626m 1.5g 1.5g S 0.7 19.5 0:03.97 ora_dbw2_test

4800 oracle 16 0 1626m 1.5g 1.5g S 0.7 19.5 0:04.09 ora_dbw3_test

1 root 16 0 2384 600 512 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.86 init [3]

2 root RT 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 [migration/0]

3 root 34 19 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 [ksoftirqd/0]

top data comes from
Top – data comes from

/proc/<pid>/status

cat /proc/10450/status

Name: oracle

State: S (sleeping)

SleepAVG: 98%

Tgid: 10450

Pid: 10450

PPid: 1

TracerPid: 0

Uid: 503 503 503 503

Gid: 503 503 503 503

FDSize: 256

Groups: 503 603

VmSize: 83424 kB

VmLck: 0 kB

VmRSS: 1484204 kB

VmData: 1612 kB

VmStk: 124 kB

VmExe: 52720 kB

VmLib: 8420 kB

top additional columns
top – additional columns
  • top can have additional columns
    • swap file usage
      • computed
    • code
    • data
  • THEY ARE ALL WRONG
vmstat
vmstat

vmstat 2

procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- ----cpu----

r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa

0 0 0 3631424 11096 120204 0 0 35 31 255 20 0 0 99 0

0 0 0 3631488 11096 120204 0 0 0 0 1014 18 0 0 100 0

0 0 0 3631488 11096 120204 0 0 0 0 1012 16 0 0 100 0

  • r – run queue – how many processes currently waiting for or running on the CPU
  • b – how many processes waiting, usually waiting on IO
  • swpd – swap memory usage
  • free – free memory
  • cache – file system cache
vmstat cont
vmstat cont

vmstat 2

procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- ----cpu----

r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa

0 0 0 3631424 11096 120204 0 0 35 31 255 20 0 0 99 0

0 0 0 3631488 11096 120204 0 0 0 0 1014 18 0 0 100 0

0 0 0 3631488 11096 120204 0 0 0 0 1012 16 0 0 100 0

  • si/so – swap in / out – in Kb/sec
  • bi/bo – bytes in / out – in Kb/sec
  • cs – context switches
  • us/sy/id/wa – user/system/idle/wait time for CPUs
proc meminfo
/proc/meminfo
  • cat /proc/meminfo

MemTotal: 8310308 kB

MemFree: 93448 kB

Buffers: 132036 kB

Cached: 3413324 kB

SwapCached: 0 kB

Active: 1658252 kB

Inactive: 1942032 kB

HighTotal: 7470528 kB

HighFree: 8768 kB

LowTotal: 839780 kB

LowFree: 84680 kB

SwapTotal: 7823644 kB

SwapFree: 7823072 kB

Dirty: 100 kB

Writeback: 0 kB

Mapped: 82500 kB

Slab: 92028 kB

Committed_AS: 490700 kB

PageTables: 3952 kB

VmallocTotal: 106488 kB

VmallocUsed: 5964 kB

VmallocChunk: 99900 kB

HugePages_Total: 2200

HugePages_Free: 1088

Hugepagesize: 2048 kB

proc meminfo 64 bit
/proc/meminfo – 64 bit

SwapTotal: 4816888 kB

SwapFree: 4192148 kB

Dirty: 252 kB

Writeback: 0 kB

Mapped: 1350480 kB

Slab: 461584 kB

CommitLimit: 6851404 kB

Committed_AS: 4959776 kB

PageTables: 46668 kB

VmallocTotal: 536870911 kB

VmallocUsed: 2992 kB

VmallocChunk: 536867847 kB

HugePages_Total: 2000

HugePages_Free: 128

Hugepagesize: 2048 kB

  • cat /proc/meminfo

MemTotal: 8165032 kB

MemFree: 106428 kB

Buffers: 219484 kB

Cached: 2864760 kB

SwapCached: 69256 kB

Active: 1508428 kB

Inactive: 1915392 kB

HighTotal: 0 kB

HighFree: 0 kB

LowTotal: 8165032 kB

LowFree: 106428 kB

memtotal
MemTotal
  • Total memory visible by the OS
  • If it’s not what you’ve put in the machine, probably you have a bad SIM/DIMM
memfree
MemFree
  • Memory that is currently un-occupied and available to use immediately
  • Not the maximum amount of memory available at the moment
  • Controlled by (Linux RH4) /proc/sys/vm/min_free_kbytes
memfree example
MemFree – example

grep MemFree /proc/meminfo

MemFree: 26568 kB

echo 900000 > /proc/sys/vm/min_free_kbytes

grep MemFree /proc/meminfo

MemFree: 210056 kB

buffers
Buffers
  • Cache of raw disk blocks
  • Usually occupied with ext3 metadata
    • Mostly ext3 pointers (extent management)
    • Not the cache of actual user data
  • In older kernels, was controllable
cached
Cached
  • File system cache
    • If direct IO is not used for datafiles – will have your datafiles cached
  • Binary (for execution) memory
    • includes the “oracle” binary caching
    • all the libraries caching
  • Does not mean “occupied” – usually can be released immediately
  • The Oracle SGA – when not using hugepages
cached example part 1
Cached – example part 1

[root@~]# cat /proc/meminfo

MemFree: 8232512 kB

Buffers: 9328 kB

Cached: 28372 kB

du -smc indx01_*

1714 indx01_01.dbf

1761 indx01_02.dbf

1722 indx01_03.dbf

5197 total

cat indx01_* > /dev/null

cached example part 2
Cached – example part 2

[root@~]#vmstat 2

procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- ----cpu----

r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa

0 0 0 8093888 10808 163392 0 0 0 0 1012 17 0 0 100 0

0 0 0 809395210808163392 0 0 0 0 1012 16 0 0 100 0

0 1 0 7956736 10948 300272 0 0 68602 0 1567 1126 0 2 76 22

0 1 0 780857611092448068 0 0 73992 80 1623 1210 0 2 75 23

0 1 0 2847616 16104 5397616 0 0 65792 0 1542 1076 0 2 75 23

0 0 0 2766272 16180 5479180 0 0 40698 0 1341 675 0 1 85 14

0 0 0 2766208 16192 5479168 0 0 0 114 1033 22 0 0 100 0

cat /proc/meminfo

MemFree: 2766464 kB

Buffers: 16192 kB

Cached: 5479168 kB

cached example 2 part 1
Cached – example #2 part 1

cat indx01_* >newfile

vmstat 2

procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- ----cpu----

r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa

0 0 0 2765312 17044 5479356 0 0 0 0 1012 17 0 0 100 0

0 3 0 2405376 17428 5833612 0 0 16 36866 1324 144 1 18 76 6

0 2 0 2143616 17688 6091532 0 0 4 111748 2000 213 0 16 50 34

0 1 0 16832 6784 8198556 0 0 8556 26684 1942 1267 0 2 74 24

1 1 0 16832 6856 8198744 0 0 12518 20720 2130 1767 0 3 74 23

cat /proc/meminfo

MemFree: 16768 kB

Buffers: 2192 kB

Cached: 8196908 kB

Dirty: 277468 kB

Writeback: 0 kB

cached example 2 part 2
Cached – example #2 part 2

cat /proc/meminfo

MemFree: 20672 kB

Buffers: 3300 kB

Cached: 8191900 kB

Dirty: 0 kB

Writeback: 0 kB

rm newfile

procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- ----cpu----

r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa

0 0 0 2329633808189480 0 0 0 28 1015 18 0 0 100 0

0 1 0 3257472 3948 4996372 0 0 284 0 1084 160 0 14 78 8

0 1 0 3255552 5828 4996572 0 0 940 0 1247 485 0 1 75 24

0 1 0 3253696 7616 4996344 0 0 884 96 1237 470 0 2 75 23

0 0 0 3253440 7988 4996492 0 0 186 0 1061 112 0 0 95 4

0 0 0 3253440 7988 4996492 0 0 0 0 1012 14 0 0 100 0

slide43
Swap
  • SwapTotal
  • SwapFree
  • SwapCached
    • written to swap, but still in memory
    • applies only to anonymous memory
    • OS will anticipate memory needs, and pre-swap inactive data, but keep it in memory
  • Actual swapping (memory that will need to be read from disk) = SwapTotal - SwapFree - SwapCached
active inactive
Active/Inactive
  • Active – recently used memory
    • Includes all types of memory (cached, buffers, anonymous)
    • OS will try to keep it in RAM
  • Inactive – memory that will be first reused
    • “free” memory
  • Can be used to gauge the “working set”
high low total free
High/Low Total/Free
  • 32 bit limitations, no high memory on 64 bit
  • Some kernel structures cannot be allocated in “high memory”
  • Used to be a problem in older kernels, newer kernels protect low memory
dirty writeback
Dirty & Writeback
  • Dirty – cache/buffers memory that requires to be written to disk
    • thresholds can be adjusted
  • Writeback – memory actively been written to disk
    • Can reach high values with async writes with large queue
committed as mapped
Committed_AS & Mapped
  • Committed_AS
    • Total memory requested on the system
    • Not used, just requested
    • If every process in the system is to touch and use the memory it has requested, this is how much would be used
  • Mapped
    • memory used for in-memory mapped files
    • all anonymous memory
    • includes committed & touched memory
committed as example
Committed_AS - example

cat grab.c

main() {void *p;

p=malloc(1073741824);

sleep(60);}

cat /proc/meminfo

...

MemFree: 3230592 kB

...

Committed_AS: 49972 kB

./grab

cat /proc/meminfo

...

MemFree: 3230464 kB

...

Committed_AS: 1098808 kB

slide49
Slab
  • Slab – “in-kernel data structures cache”
    • similar to Oracle’s “shared_pool”
    • designed to prevent memory fragmentation
    • detailed monitoring:/proc/slabinfoslabtop
  • Basically “system space”
slabtop ordered by cache size
slabtop – ordered by cache size

Active / Total Objects (% used) : 88874 / 139343 (63.8%)

Active / Total Slabs (% used) : 5839 / 5846 (99.9%)

Active / Total Caches (% used) : 90 / 132 (68.2%)

Active / Total Size (% used) : 17286.03K / 23311.27K (74.2%)

Minimum / Average / Maximum Object : 0.01K / 0.17K / 128.00K

OBJS ACTIVE USE OBJ SIZE SLABS OBJ/SLAB CACHE SIZE NAME

32382 24900 76% 0.27K 2313 14 9252K radix_tree_node

56925 40013 70% 0.05K 759 75 3036K buffer_head

364 363 99% 4.00K 364 1 1456K size-4096

2485 2471 99% 0.54K 355 7 1420K ext3_inode_cache

2376 413 17% 0.50K 297 8 1188K size-512

256 256 100% 3.00K 128 2 1024K biovec-(256)

4576 4481 97% 0.15K 176 26 704K dentry_cache

10248 4548 44% 0.06K 168 61 672K size-64

4340 1215 27% 0.12K 140 31 560K size-128

1980 316 15% 0.25K 132 15 528K size-256

hugepages
HugePages
  • 2Mb pages
  • organized in a separate memory pool
  • locked in memory
  • available only to shared memory requests
  • pre-allocated via kernel parameter
shared memory mapping
Shared memory mapping

32 bit addressing space

0 gb

1 gb

2 gb

3 gb

4 gb

P1

P2

Reservedvirtualregion for

the system(kernel)

RAM

shared memory mapping huge
Shared memory mapping (huge)

32 bit addressing space

0 gb

1 gb

2 gb

3 gb

4 gb

P1

P2

RAM

HugePagesPre-AllocatedMemory pool

Locked in RAM

vlm 32 bit workarround
VLM – 32 bit workarround
  • 32 bit adress space is 4 Gb
  • 32 bit systems with PAE (Intel)
    • up to 64 Gb of ram
  • Memory filesystem
    • opens a file in /dev/shm for buffer cache
    • shared pool still in Shared Memory
  • Beware of small Oracle block size
vlm using 3gb on 32 bit
VLM – using 3gb+ on 32 bit

32 bit addressing space

0 gb

1 gb

2 gb

3 gb

4 gb

P1

P2

/dev/shm/ora_

ramfs

mmap region

RAM

use indirect buffers
USE_INDIRECT_BUFFERS
  • RedHat/SUSE
    • shmfs – needs size
    • tmpfs – does not need size
    • ramfs – does not need size + Locked
  • none can use HugePages
    • shared pool can still use HugePages
    • double-memory access due to mapping
directio
DirectIO
  • Direct IO (O_DIRECT) – bypasses file system cache and access the files directly
  • DB activity does not pollute OS cache
  • DB activity does not compete with PGA/PLSQL memory
pagetables
PageTables
  • Memory for per-process page tables
    • B-Tree like structure – this number shows leaf blocks space
    • Memory to manage memory
    • One entry of ~4 bytes per process, per used 4kb of memory
    • In Oracle’s case, assuming an SGA of 2gb524’288 pages * 8 bytes = 4 Mb per process
  • 1000 sessions = 4 Gb of memory, to manage 2gb of SGA
case studies
Case studies

PageTables using a lot of ram

pagetables bad example
PageTables – bad example
  • Config:
    • 1.7 Gb sga (max on 32 bit without VLM)
    • 1400 Mb in db_cache_size
    • table sized to fit exactly in cache
  • Start 100 sessions, that full scan the table (cached) in order to touch the memory and allocate the PTEs
    • Sessions will wait via dbms_lock.allocate to be released
  • Show before and after PageTables usage
pagetables bad example cont
PageTables – bad example cont.
  • Before starting the sessions (db is UP)

cat /proc/meminfo

MemFree: 1070472 kB

Committed_AS: 1881544 kB

PageTables: 4932 kB

  • After sessions have finished touching the memory

cat /proc/meminfo

MemFree: 473496 kB

Committed_AS: 4708552 kB

PageTables: 295068 kB

hugepages oracle
HugePages & Oracle
  • Locks SGA in memory
    • no part of the SGA will ever be swapped out, or even considered for swapping
  • Reduces the number of PTE entries
    • Assuming 2 Gb SGA 1’000 PTEs * 8 bytes = 8 Kb per process
    • 1000 sessions = 4 Mb of memory, a 512 fold reduction
hugepages performance
HugePages & Performance
  • Releases more memory for PGA or more db_cache
  • Guarantees that SGA will always be in memory
  • Improves TLB hit ratio
    • TLB is a CPU level cache of virtual to physical memory mappings, improving performance
  • 8% improvement in a memory only TPC test
    • not including the fact there is more memory available
hugepages 100 sessions
HugePages & 100 sessions
  • The test from a few slides before
  • Before starting 100 sessions (db up)

cat /proc/meminfo

Committed_AS: 332264 kB

PageTables: 3056 kB

  • After

Committed_AS: 3124640 kB

PageTables: 23100 kB

no hugepages
No hugepages

System

User

SLAB

Buffers

Mapped

Anonymous

(PGA,PLSQL arrays)

Pagetables

Cached

IPC Memory (SGA)

with hugepages
With HugePages

System

User

SLAB

Buffers

Mapped

Anonymous

(PGA,PLSQL arrays)

Pagetables

Cached

Hugepages

IPC Memory (SGA)

hugepages on red hat
HugePages – on Red Hat
  • what you need to setup RH4
    • /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages
    • /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group
    • /etc/security/limits.conf
case studies68
Case studies

Where is my free memory going?

freshly booted
Freshly booted

vmstat 2

procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- ----cpu----

r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa

0 0 0 7725800 13036 497864 0 0 0 16 1013 25 0 0 100 0

0 1 0 7663272 13144 556516 0 0 14806 70 1164 393 2 2 80 16

0 1 0 7513128 13252 706168 0 0 37494 0 1318 631 2 3 75 20

0 1 0 7310824 13408 908032 0 0 50502 64 1429 862 3 4 75 18

...

0 1 0 5503208 14724 2709556 0 0 59144 16 1493 987 3 4 75 18

1 0 0 5263080 14856 2948884 0 0 59838 128 1518 995 3 5 75 18

0 0 0 5111272 14944 3106096 0 0 39344 6 1332 663 2 5 82 11

0 0 0 5111272 14944 3106096 0 0 0 16 1013 26 0 0 100 0

0 0 0 5111144 14960 3106080 0 0 0 30 1016 36 0 0 100 0

  • Reading ~1.2 Gb of data, free memory drops twice as much
    • file system cache
    • oracle SGA been touched
freshly booted hugepages
Freshly booted – hugepages

vmstat 2

procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- ----cpu----

r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa

0 0 0 3436280 14236 286324 0 0 0 56 1027 54 0 0 100 0

0 1 0 3395192 14336 323924 0 0 18902 24 1193 447 2 1 81 16

0 1 0 3303928 14480 415040 0 0 45572 48 1387 775 3 1 75 21

0 1 0 2566776 15560 1150020 0 0 49228 6 1416 828 3 1 75 20

0 1 0 2452152 15720 1264260 0 0 57230 18 1492 977 3 1 75 20

  • Reading 1.2 Gb of data, free memory drops with same amount
    • file system cache consuming memory
freshly booted with directio
Freshly booted – with directIO

vmstat 2

procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- ----cpu----

r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa

0 0 0 3436280 14236 286324 0 0 0 56 1027 54 0 0 100 0

0 1 0 3395192 14336 323924 0 0 18902 24 1193 447 2 1 81 16

0 1 0 3303928 14480 415040 0 0 45572 48 1387 775 3 1 75 21

0 1 0 2566776 15560 1150020 0 0 49228 6 1416 828 3 1 75 20

0 1 0 2452152 15720 1264260 0 0 57230 18 1492 977 3 1 75 20

  • 1.2 Gb of data – 1.2 Gb drop in free memory
  • NO CHANGE
direct io bugs
DIRECT_IO Bugs
  • bug 3186847
    • filesystemio_options=directio is ignored on linux
    • fixed in 9.2.0.6
  • Note: 297521.1
    • bug 2448994 introduced - O_DIRECT flag was not passed to the open() system call
    • fixed in 9.2.0.7
  • Basically you need 9.2.0.7
shared memory monitoring
Shared memory monitoring
  • How to see shared memory?
    • ipcs – shows the “IPC” shared memory
  • If you kill Oracle without freeing up shared memory
    • ipcrm – to remove
slide74
ipcs

ipcs

------ Shared Memory Segments --------

key shmid owner perms bytes nattch status

0x00000000 4915200 oracle 600 2097152 14

0x00000000 4947969 oracle 600 1342177280 14

0x7157be04 4980738 oracle 600 278921216 14

------ Semaphore Arrays --------

key semid owner perms nsems

0xb1adfd8c 622592 oracle 640 354

------ Message Queues --------

key msqid owner perms used-bytes messages

to remove orphan segments
To remove orphan segments
  • Identified via “sysresv”
    • or number attached from ipcs
    • or pmap of an oracle pid
  • Use ipcrm to remove
the end
The End

Thank you,

Questions?

kutrovsky@pythian.com

Visit my blog at

http://www.pythian.com/blogs/kutrovsky/

Christo Kutrovsky

The Pythian Group

2007 April

http://www.pythian.com/