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A Home Schooling Story. Definition of Interest Group. an organized body of individuals who share some goals and who try to influence public policy Parties largely try to determine who occupies positions in government interest groups primarily try to affect the decisions that others make .

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Definition of interest group
Definition of Interest Group

  • an organized body of individuals who share some goals and who try to influence public policy

    • Parties largely try to determine who occupies positions in government

    • interest groups primarily try to affect the decisions that others make


Normative s about ig
Normative ?s about IG

  • Is this growth of interest groups a good thing?

  • What is the appropriate role of interest groups in a democracy?

  • Madison

    • Causes of Factions Are Sown Into the Nature of Man

    • Remedy is Worse Than the Disease


Pluralism
Pluralism

  • Empirical Description of Politics

    • Politics is a struggle between groups

    • For every interest, there is a group

    • Policy reflects the balance of power between groups in society

  • Normative Description of Politics

    • Reflects the intensity of preferences as well as the direction

    • No permanent losers


Theory of pluralism
Theory of Pluralism

  • Groups are basis of politics

  • self-interest will lead organizations to form groups for policies

  • “hidden hand” of self-interest will lead to good overall effects.

  • If one group is too powerful, counter-groups will form.

  • No permanent losers

  • Groups reflect intensity ofpreferences


Critiques of pluralism
Critiques of Pluralism

  • "The heavenly chorus of the interest group process sings with an upper-class accent."

  • Collective Action problem

  • Overcoming the free rider problem

    • Solidarity benefits

    • Material benefits

    • Purposive benefits


Goals of interest groups
Goals of Interest Groups

  • Improve Probability that Their Interests Will Be Treated Favorably

  • Influence Policy-Making Process

  • Preserve Organization


Inside game
Inside Game

  • Focus is on Governing Officials

    • Lobbying

    • Litigation

    • Electoral Politics

    • Political Action Committees (PAC’s)


The outside game
"The Outside Game"

  • Focus is on shaping public opinion

    • Indirect influence

    • Publicity and Mass Appeal

    • Mass Mailing

    • Organize the District


Why groups use different tactics
Why Groups Use Different Tactics

  • group characteristics

    • Exxon vs. Greenpeace

  • situational characteristics

    • Outs vs. the Ins

  • Convergence between outside and inside strategies

  • General Electric


Interest group influence
Interest Group Influence

  • empirical component

    • how powerful are they?

  • normative component

    • how powerful should they be?


Iron triangle s
Iron Triangles

  • Alliance of common interest between an interest group, a congressional committee, and a bureaucratic agency

  • Department of Defense/Pentagon- House and Senate Armed Services Committee—and Defense Contractors

  • interest groups play the dominant role

  • Outsiders are shut out


Issue networks
Issue Networks

  • larger and looser connection of interest groups, committees, and agencies in a particular policy area

  • Case of Tobacco Policy

    • More open and less stable than old triangles

    • More closely resembles that of pluralist doctrine


Grapes of wrath
Grapes of Wrath

  • Internet sale of wine– wine.com

  • Beer Wholesalers of America

  • 9700 small wineries

  • Internet companies

  • Salience of issue


Big sugar
Big Sugar

  • Who can overcome collective action problem?

  • Winners & Losers


Hyperpolitics cigler loomis
Hyperpolitics- Cigler & Loomis

  • Politicization of all communications

  • Permanent campaign

  • Microsoft- Interest group $ “shaping perceptions of problems and political agenda”

Pickens Plan- http://www.pickensplan.com/index.php


Criteria for power
Criteria for power

  • Access

  • Information

  • Numerical strength

  • Group unity

  • Money

  • Narrow goals

  • Defense

  • Nature of issue


Influence of ig is conditional
Influence of IG is conditional

  • most influential

    • on low profile issues

    • In blocking actions; hard to originate

    • When unopposed by other groups

    • If they have plentiful resources


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