multimedia and interactivity
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Multimedia and Interactivity Interactivity Allows users to manipulate information and to contribute to the story Promotes user involvement and understanding Results in an online journalism story that is a collection of contributions from journalists, experts and individual readers

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Presentation Transcript
interactivity
Interactivity
  • Allows users to manipulate information and to contribute to the story
  • Promotes user involvement and understanding
  • Results in an online journalism story that is a collection of contributions from journalists, experts and individual readers
types of media elements
Types of Media Elements
  • Graphics
  • Sound
  • Video
  • Rich content
  • Databases and interactive mashups
graphics
Graphics
  • Photographs—Help convey the emotion or essence of the story
  • NYT Year in Pictures
techniques and aesthetics for gathering images
Techniques and Aestheticsfor Gathering Images
  • Picture composition (framing)
  • Three basic shots:
    • Long shot
    • Medium shot
    • Close-up
  • Rule of thirds
  • Eye space
  • Depth of field
graphics6
Graphics
  • Maps—Specify geographical location of the news story
  • NYT and Weekend Explorer
graphics7
Graphics
  • Technical illustrations—Show how a system works
  • NYT @ the Met
  • NYT Crane Collapse
graphics8
Graphics
  • Information graphics—Show relationships between numbers or concepts (bar chart, line chart)
  • NYT and The Ebb and Flow of Movies
sound
Sound
  • When to use sound
    • Does it help tell the story?
    • Does it convey to users a sense of being there?
  • How to integrate sound with the story
    • With basic HTML, a plug-in plays the sound clip
    • Supplement HTML with Java or Flash for a more immersive effect
digital sound formats
Digital Sound Formats
  • Streaming (RealAudio)
  • MP3 (best compromise for music)
  • Combinations
    • NYT and The Lourdes of Twang
    • NYT and Voices from the Polls
microphones
Microphones
  • Three main types:
    • Hand-held
    • Lavaliere
    • Shotgun
recording devices
Recording Devices
  • Volume level and sound quality are important aspects
  • May choose format and quality before recording
  • Selection of digitizing quality includes additional parameters:
    • Sampling rate
    • Bit depth
    • Channels
video
Video
  • When to use video
    • Does it help tell the story?
    • Does it show something unique?
  • How to combine video with the story
    • With basic HTML, video clips disrupt flow of story
    • Users should be allowed to choose whether they want to view video
video aesthetics
Video Aesthetics
  • Aspects of still photography apply to video
  • Camera moves:
    • Panning
    • Tilting
    • Zooming
  • Additional video considerations:
    • Compression, Sequencing, Sound bites
digitizing and editing audio and video
Digitizing and Editing Audio and Video
  • Tradeoffs = higher quality but larger files require more bandwidth
  • Requires a specialized video capture card
  • Compression can make files smaller
    • MPEG-1 or MPEG-4
    • Choose settings based on individual preferences, e.g., smooth motion or frame detail
rich content
Rich Content
  • Additions to HTML that allow greater interactivity and control of individual media elements
    • Java
    • Flash
  • USAToday and Gasoline
  • MSNBC “Battle of the Bags”
user generated content
User-Generated Content
  • Forums and blogs
  • Databases
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Open-source journalism
making media decisions
Making Media Decisions
  • Nature of the story
  • Target audience
  • Available resources
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