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Medical Terminology. Unit 3 Oncology and the Central Nervous System. Prefix. Hyper- Above or more than normal Hypercritical Hypercholesterolemia Hypertoxicity Hyperflexion Hyperactivity Hyperlipidemia Hyperproteinuria. Prefix. Hypo- Below or less than normal Hypocalcemia

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medical terminology

Medical Terminology

Unit 3

Oncology and the Central Nervous System

prefix
Prefix
  • Hyper-
    • Above or more than normal
      • Hypercritical
      • Hypercholesterolemia
      • Hypertoxicity
      • Hyperflexion
      • Hyperactivity
      • Hyperlipidemia
      • Hyperproteinuria
prefix1
Prefix
  • Hypo-
    • Below or less than normal
      • Hypocalcemia
      • Hypodactylia
      • Hyposensitive
      • Hypothermia
      • Hypokalemia
      • Hypothyroidism
      • Hypodermic
more examples
Hypertrophy

Overdevelopment

Hypertension

High blood pressure

Hyperemesis

Excessive vomiting

Hypotrophy (atrophy)

Progressive degeneration

Hypotension

Low blood pressure

More Examples
aden o
Aden/o
  • “glands”
    • Adenitis
    • Adenectomy
    • Adenoma
    • Adenopathy
    • Lymphadenopathy
skin lesions
Skin Lesions
  • Lesion = One of many possible types of abnormal tissue conditions
    • Ulcer = Open sores on the skin or mucous membranes
    • Tumor = Abnormal growth in numbers and/or types of cells. May be benign or malignant (cancerous)
benign vs malignant
Benign

-oma

Malignant

Carcinoma/-carcinoma

From epithelial-type tissue

Sarcoma/-sarcoma

From connective-type tissue

Carcin/o = “crab”

= Cancer

CA or Ca

Benign vs. Malignant
benign vs malignant1
Adenoma

Papilloma

fibroadenoma

Adenocarcinoma

Melanoma (Malignant Melanoma)

Exception to pattern

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Benign vs. Malignant
skin cancers
Skin Cancers

Melanoma Basal Cell Carcinoma

benign vs malignant2
Osteoma

Chondroma

Leiomyoma

Lipoma

Hemangioma

Neuroma

Atheroma

Osteosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma

Leiomyosarcoma

Liposarcoma

Angiosarcoma

Neurosarcoma

Lymphosarcoma

Benign vs. Malignant
exceptions
Exceptions
  • Sound like benign but are malignant:
    • Melanoma (Malignant melanoma)
    • Myeloma (Multiple Myeloma)
    • Lymphoma
    • Leukemia
metastasis
Metastasis
  • Metastasis Singular Noun
  • Metastases Plural Noun
  • Metastatic Adjective
  • Metastasize(d) Verb
  • Meta- = beyond -stasis = in one place
    • Spreading beyond the original place

Met, Metas, Mets

plural formation
Plural Formation
  • -oma omata
    • Lipoma  Lipomata
    • Sarcoma  Sarcomata
    • Atheroma  Atheromata
    • Adenoma  Adenomata
    • Melanoma  Melanomata
onc o tumor
Onc/o = Tumor
  • From Greek word oncos = mass
    • Oncology
    • Oncologist
slide16
-oid
  • Means like or resembling
    • Lipoid
    • mucoid
ather o
Ather/o
  • Means fatty or porridgelike
    • Atheroma = tumorlike thickening and degeneration of blood vessel walls caused by fatty deposits
atherosclerosis hardening of vessel walls due to fatty deposits
Atherosclerosis = hardening of vessel walls due to fatty deposits
  • Be careful:
    • Ather/o = fatty, porridgelike
    • Arteri/o = arteries
    • Arthr/o = joint
hist o
Hist/o
  • Means tissue
  • Histolysis = destruction of tissue
  • Histogenous = made of tissue
  • Histology = the study of tissue
  • Histologist = one who studies tissues
hist o1
An Embryonic tissue

A tissue cell

Resembling tissue

Histoblast

Histocyte

Histoid

Hist/o
slide21
Neo-
  • Greek neos mean new
  • Neogenesis = generation of new substance
  • Neonatal = refers to the newborn
  • Neoplasm = new formation, tumor or growth
    • Plasm/o = formation
    • A nonmalignant tumor is called a benign neoplasm
    • Carcinoma or sarcoma are malignant neoplasm
slide22
Anti- is a Prefix meaning against
  • -plast/ic is an adjective suffix for abnormal growth
    • Antineoplastic is a therapeutic agent that works against cancerous neoplasms
  • -genesis refers to development.
    • Antitumorigenesis = the process of inhibiting development of a tumor
mucosa serosa
Mucosa & Serosa
  • Muc/us = secretion of the mucous membrane
    • Noun: Muc/us adjective: Muc/ous
  • Mucosa = mucous membrane
    • Lining of the open body cavities, like digestive system
  • Ser/ous
  • Serosa = serous membrane
    • Lining of the closed body cavities. Covers the outside of organs such as the intestines
cephal head
Cephal = Head
  • Headache (pain in head)
    • Noun
      • Cephal/algia (-algia = pain)
      • Cephalgia
      • Cephal/o/dynia (Odyne, -odynia = pain)
    • Adjective
      • Cephal/o/dynic
  • Cephalic
    • Adjective: Pertaining to the head
encephal brain
Encephal = Brain
  • Encephal/itis: inflammation of the brain
  • Encephal/o/cele: Herniation of brain tissue through cranial fissure
    • Kele or –cele = abnormal protrusion or swelling
    • Brain herniation is sometimes a finding in hydrocephaly
  • Encephal/o/malac/ia: softening of brain tissue
  • Encephal/o/tomy: incision into the brain
  • Electr/o/encephal/o/gram (EEG): picture of the electrical activity of the brain
crani o skull
Crani/o = Skull
  • Cranium = skull
  • Cranioplasty: Surgical repair of skull
    • -plasty = surgical repair
  • Craniomalacia: softening of the bones of the skull
  • Craniectomy: excision of part of the cranium
  • Craniotomy: incision into skull
  • Craniometer: instrument used to measure the cranium
  • Cranial (Adjective)
cerebr cerebrum
Cerebr = Cerebrum
  • Cerebrum is a part of the brain
    • Thought occurs
    • Feeling is interpreted
    • Motor impulses arise
    • “gray matter”
  • Cerebral (adjective)
cerebr cerebrum1
Cerebr = Cerebrum
  • Cerebr/itis
  • Cerebr/oma
  • Cerebr/otomy
  • Cerebr/o/vascul/ar
  • Cerebr/o/spin/al
mening o meninges
Mening/o = Meninges
  • Meninges are 3-layered membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.
    • Pia mater, arachnoid, dura mater
  • Mening/o/cele: herniation of meninges
  • Mening/o/malac/ia: softening of the meninges
  • Mening/itis: inflammation of the meninges
    • Caused by bacteria or virus
abbreviation
Abbreviation
  • AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • ASCP American Society of Clinical Pathology
  • BX Biopsy
  • BCC Basal cell carcinoma
  • BP Blood pressure
  • Ca, CA Calcium, Cancer
  • CIS Carcinoma in situ
  • CLA Certified laboratory assistant
  • CP Cerebral palsy
  • CSF Cerebralspinal fluid
  • CV Cardiovascular
abbreviation1
Abbreviation
  • CVA Cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
  • EEG Electroencephalogram
  • END Electroneurodiagnostic
  • ENG Electronystaygraphy
  • EP Evoked Potential
  • HA Headache
  • HCVD Hypertensive Cardiovascular disease
  • MBD Minimal brain dysfunction
  • Met., metas., mets. Metastasis
  • MLT Medical laboratory technician
abbreviation2
Abbreviation
  • mmHG millimeters of mercury (pressure)
  • MT Medical technologist
  • NCS Nerves Conduction Studies
  • PSG Polysomnography
  • TIA Transient ischemic attack