The Charm of RHIC Electrons - Light Messengers from Heavy Quarks Outline introduction strongly interacting matter relativistic heavy-ion collisions probing the hot and dense medium electrons from heavy flavor at RHIC reference: p+p collisions cold nuclear matter: d+Au collisions
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PHENIXThe experimental challenge
gA view behind the curtain
number of “binary” collisions, determined from the collision geometry (Glauber)
p-pDirect photons at √sNN = 200 GeV
Medium produced in
Au+Au collisions is
for direct photons!
Quantitative assessment of medium parameters requires in-between (“grey”) probe
Medium produced in Au+Au collisions is opaque for light quark and gluon jets!
, Y’, cHeavy quarks to the rescue?
p-Charm measurements at RHIC
PRL 94, 062301 (2005)
charged pions: (p+ + p-)/2
neutral pions: p0
(e+ + e-)/2 from
electrons: (e+ + e-)/2e± from heavy flavor: problem I
spectrometer arms: |h| 0.35 p 0.2 GeV/c
2 forward muon spectrometers:
1.2 < |h| < 2.4 p 2 GeV/cPHENIX & STAR at RHIC
3 detectors for event characterization:
vertex, centrality, reaction plane
optimized for hadrons, but can do leptons
optimized for leptons, but can do hadrons
PHOTONICe± from heavy flavor: problem II
p+p @ √s = 200 GeV
PRL 97, 252002 (2006)
1/TABEdN/dp3 [mb GeV-2]Cold nuclear matter: PHENIX
STAR e± dataCold nuclear matter: STAR
full phase space
total yield for pT > 0.8 GeV/cHot matter: e± yield in Au+Au
PRL 96, 032301 (2006)Discovery of heavy quark energy loss
p-Electrons are not “born alone”
Normalization ErrorDielectrons in Au+Au (I)
Reaction plane: Z-X plane
asymmetric pressure gradients (early, self quenching)
pXDoes charm thermalize?
χ2 minimum result
4σDoes charm flow?
a = 1
b = 0.96
RHIC is CHARMING and the future looks BEAUTIFUL!