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Delacroix. Liberty Leading the People. Outline. Introduction Part I. Romanticism Part II. Delacroix Part III. The July Revolution Part IV. Liberty Leading the People Conclusion References. Introduction.

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  1. Delacroix Liberty Leading the People Dr. Montoneri

  2. Outline • Introduction • Part I. Romanticism • Part II. Delacroix • Part III. The July Revolution • Part IV. Liberty Leading the People • Conclusion • References Dr. Montoneri

  3. Introduction • Delacroix is one of the most productive and influential painters of the 19th century • On July 1830, the people of Paris went to the barricades. King Charles X had dissolved parliament and restricted press freedom • There was no real leader in the revolution; Delacroix was on the side of the rebels and produced a masterpiece: Liberty Leading the People (1830) • In the painting, ‘liberty’ is leading; she is an allegorical figure and unites the citizens of all classes • Delacroix’s free brushwork, and the luminescence of his colors, produce the vividness of this painting • Celebrated in France as the head of the Romantic school Dr. Montoneri

  4. Part I. Romanticism • European and American movement from 1800 to 1850 • The word romantic first became current in 18th-century English and originally meant “romancelike,” resembling the strange and fanciful character of medieval romances • Feeling began to be considered more important than reason both in literature and in ethics, an attitude epitomized by the work of the French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau • In France, the formative stage of romanticism coincided with the Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815); the first French romantic painters found their inspiration in contemporary events Dr. Montoneri

  5. Part II. Delacroix • Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863) one of the most important painters from the French romantic period • Trained in the neoclassical style of David; strongly influenced by the more colorful and rich style of Rubens (1577-1640) and Géricault (1791-1824), whose works marked an introduction to romanticism in art • Delacroix's artistic career began in 1822 with The Barque of Dante (1822, Louvre, Paris) • After a trip to London, passion for English literature; made lithograph illustrations for Macbeth and Hamlet and heroes of Sir Walter Scott and Byron • Delacroix spent 6 months in North Africa in 1832 and became fascinated by life and customs of the Arabs Dr. Montoneri

  6. Self-Portrait C.1837. Oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris, France Dr. Montoneri

  7. Part III. The July Revolution • After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, the monarchy reestablished (Louis XVIII until 1824; then Charles X) • The revolt of July 1830 created a constitutional monarchy (les Trois Glorieuses or Three Glorious Days: 27-28-29 July) • Charles X (1824-1830) abdicated rather than become a limited monarch and departed for England • In his place, Louis-Philippe (1830-1848) of the house of Orléans was placed on the throne • He agreed to rule as a constitutional monarch. This period became known as the July Monarchy • An economic crisis in 1847 led to the citizens of France revolting against their king once again • Louis-Philippe abdicated in 1848 and escaped to England Dr. Montoneri

  8. Part IV. Liberty Leading the People • Delacroix produced more than 850 paintings; Liberty Leading the People is his masterpiece, one of the most famous romantic paintings • Celebrates the day of 28 July 1830, when the people rose and dethroned the Bourbon king, but failed to proclaim a republic • First political work of modern painting; Romantic style of painting emphasized color, spirit and contemporary life • Delacroix expressed in this painting his emotions and understanding of the July Revolution of 1830 • Elements of Romanticism: vibrancy of color; dramatic color, paint is applied richly and freely Dr. Montoneri

  9. Liberty Leading the People 1830. Oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris, France Dr. Montoneri

  10. Delacroix wrote to his brother, a general: ‘Since I have not fought and conquered for the fatherland, I can at least paint on its behalf.’ To the left of Liberty, a man wearing a top hat, is probably Delacroix himself. Dr. Montoneri

  11. The boy with pistols on the right was perhaps the inspiration for the character of Gavroche in Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables Dr. Montoneri

  12. Allegorical figure of Liberty as a half-draped woman wearing the traditional Phrygian cap of liberty and holding a gun in one hand and the tricolor in the other; the goddess of liberty is a woman of the people, a Venus of the streets Dr. Montoneri

  13. Conclusion • Louis-Phillippe purchased Liberty Leading the People for 3,000 francs, but never exhibited it • French Revolution of 1830 ended France's absolute monarchy but failed to proclaim a republic • Delacroix’s use of color was influential in the development of both Impressionist and Postimpressionist painters • Liberty Leading the Peopleis the last of Delacroix's paintings that truly embodied the romantic ideal. He found new inspiration on a trip to Morocco in 1832 • Following the Revolution of 1848 that saw the end of the reign of King Louis Philippe, Delacroix's painting, Liberty Leading the People, was finally put on display by the newly elected President, Louis Napoleon • But he proclaimed the empire in 1852 (Napoleon III) Dr. Montoneri

  14. 100 Francs 1994 (E. Delacroix; nude Marianne) Dr. Montoneri

  15. References • http://www.abcgallery.com • http://encarta.msn.com • http://en.wikipedia.org • http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/delacroix • http://flagspot.net/flags/fr_july.html • http://www.banknotes.com/fr.htm • Giles Néret, Eugène Delacroix, the Prince of Romanticism, Koln, Taschen, 1999, 96 pages • Anna Krausse, the Story of Painting, Konemann, 1995 Dr. Montoneri

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