Health Belief Model (HBM) Becker & Rosenstock (1984). The extent to which they believe they’re susceptible to the associated behaviour. Their perception of the severity of the consequences of getting the said ‘disease’ or in the case of food behaviour.
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Health Belief Model (HBM) Becker & Rosenstock (1984) • The extent to which they believe they’re susceptible to the associated behaviour. • Their perception of the severity of the consequences of getting the said ‘disease’ or in the case of food behaviour. • Together these two functions determine the perceived threat of the consequence, and in addition become ‘cued to action’.
HBM in action.. Perceived Susceptibility I eat junk I will always be obese Belief in personal health threat Perceived Severity Obese people always die early Health Behaviour Eat healthy Perceived Benefit If I eat healthier I will live longer Belief in effectiveness of health behaviour Perceived Barriers I enjoy junk food.. I’m addicted. Cues to action Internal: illness External: Media
Social cognition models…… • So far we have focused on the use of cognition models as a means of understanding individuals actions • TRA and HBM. • We now need to apply this to food...ask yourselves • What cognitions do we have about food and how do they affect what we eat?
Evaluation of the social cognitive approach. • Oversimplified used of cognitions • Limited and ignore the multiplicity of meanings associated with food. • Ignoring the role of emotions • Assume that the decision made is rational, it ignores how powerful emotions can be in the decision making process. • The views of others • Does not really impress the role of others in social behaviours such as eating. • Emphasis on cognitions • Useful basis for developing interventions & change how people think about food.
Factors influencing attitudes to food & eating behaviour. • Culture • Jews- No pork • Hindus- No beef • Vegetarians-No meat. • Mood • Comfort eating-thrgh CC/OC/SLT a form of associative learning • Caffeine • Start/end the day with a kick. • Exposure to food • Children can be neophobic but change over time.
The story so far……………. • The work below covers the syllabus content: • Factors influencing attitudes to food & eating behaviour e.g. Cultural influences, mood & health concerns. • You should be able to: • Describe people’s attitudes to food & eating behaviour & discuss at least2 factors that affect people’s attitudes to food & eating behaviour: we focus on cultural influences, mood & health concerns. • Describe evaluate research that has investigated how these factors influence attitudes to food & eating behaviour.
Did the following enter your mind? • Homemade vs. shop bought. • High vs. low calories • Chocolate vs. no chocolate • These attributes make up your attitude. The evaluation of making a object is also known as ‘attitude object’. (1) Perceived likelihood of object having certain outcomes vs. (2) Value attached to outcomes/attributes
Eat 5 a day. What outcomes are associated with this decision?
Probably a few things ran through your mind. • Studies have shown the decision process is not that straight forward. • Ogden (2003) Sometimes we are ambivalent e.g. naughty but nice or tasty but fattening. • Sparks et al (2001) Attitudes are less likely to be intended action if you hols both +/- views.
Over to you…. Food choice “take place within a network of social meetings” (Ogden 2003) • Judaism Vegetarianism Islam Christianity Health Concerns Research these particular groups and their attitude to food
How do I put this into meaningful A02 & A03? • You need to discuss factors...we have looked at: • Culture • Health concerns • Mood Strengths & weaknesses of the research. Individual differences… (factors are not universal). The research is correlation…you cannot assume cause and effect there are likely to be other factors involved. Counter arguments using the different explanations. One trial has proven itself to be a very adaptive trait and useful for survival Don’t be scared to make statements just ensure you can support your argument.