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Geography/Planning 379 “Urban Growth & Development” Lecture 7: Urban Rent and Land Use Theory von Thünen’s Agricultura PowerPoint Presentation
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Geography/Planning 379 “Urban Growth & Development” Lecture 7: Urban Rent and Land Use Theory von Thünen’s Agricultural Land Use Theory The Concept of ‘Economic’ or ‘Bid’ Rent Graphing Bid Rent Lines The Negative Exponential Rent Gradient Urban Land Uses and Bid Rents

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slide1

Geography/Planning 379

“Urban Growth & Development”

Lecture 7: Urban Rent and Land Use Theory

von Thünen’s Agricultural Land Use Theory

The Concept of ‘Economic’ or ‘Bid’ Rent

Graphing Bid Rent Lines

The Negative Exponential Rent Gradient

Urban Land Uses and Bid Rents

Amenity versus Location Rent

Reading:

Required: Textbook, Ch. 6, pp. 147-148

Optional: Cadwallader

PROJECT 1 DUE TUESDAY 12:30

“It makes all the difference whether one sees darkness through the light or brightness through the shadows.”

– David Lindsay

von th nen s agricultural land use theory
von Thünen’s Agricultural Land Use Theory
  • Modern urban rent theory based on: agricultural rent theoryas formulated by Johann Heinrich von Thünen
  • His 1826 book: The Isolated State
  • Basic idea: Agricultural uses conform to predictable patterns around cities, which are the markets for the farm goods
  • Those goods with greatest demand and having the highest transport costs should be produced closest to the city
von th nen s agricultural land use theory3
von Thünen’s Agricultural Land Use Theory
  • Where does milk come from?

Top three dairy states:

1. Wisconsin

2. California

3. New York

  • Why does milk have high transport costs?

“Perishability”

slide4
Definition: economic rent or bid rent

The monetary return a farmer can receive for growing a particular crop on a unit of land after all the costs of production (including transportation to the market) are taken into account.

the concept of economic or bid rent
The Concept of ‘Economic’ or ‘Bid’ Rent
  • Farmers responsible for hauling produce to market
    • so economic rent higher for land closer to the city
    • lower for land farther out
  • Economic rent: highest price farmer could pay for land and break even growing a particular crop: the maximum rent that could be paid to grow a crop
  • So it is sometimes called:bid rent
  • The land may or may not be put into the use depending on whether another use can bid more for the parcel of land.
  • Extensiveagriculture (example photo: Wheat farming)
  • Intensive agriculture (example photo: Rice paddies)
graphing bid rent lines

Assume transporting corn costs 50 cents / mile

Graphing Bid Rent Lines

Assume tomato transport costs $1 / mile

Let’s graph some hypothetical bid rents!

Corn:

PC = Market Price = $100 (for amount grown on a unit of land – e.g., one acre)

SC = “Spatially Invariant” Costs = $50 (for seed, fertilizer, labor, harvesting…)

Ri(X)Bid Rent

What’s the Bid Rent right next to the Market?

Rc(x) = PC - SC = 100 - 50 = $50

Tomatoes outbidCorn

What’s the Bid Rent 10 miles from Market?

How far out will it be where Bid Rent is equal to zero?

100 - 50 – (10 x .50) = $45

$60

We can now draw in the Bid Rent Line for Corn…

100 - 50 - .50 Xmax = $0

50 = .50 Xmax

$40

Point of Intersection

Xmax = 100 miles

Corn outbidsTomatoes

Tomatoes:PT = Mkt Price = $150 ST = S.I. Costs = $75

$20

X, Dist from Mkt (Miles)

$0

Tomato Land

Corn Land

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

the predicted land use pattern and the negative exponential rent gradient
The Predicted Land Use Pattern and the Negative Exponential Rent Gradient
  • What would a land use map of our two-crop example look like?
  • But what if there are other competing land uses?

Market City

Tomatoes

Corn

Dairy

Margin of Cultivation

Grapes

Grazing

“Marlboro Country”

the predicted land use pattern and the negative exponential rent gradient8
The Predicted Land Use Pattern and the Negative Exponential Rent Gradient
  • With more and more competing land uses, what does the actual overall rent gradient look like?
  • Rent gradient shows the declining value of land as you go away from the city; land being used for the “highest and best use”
  • It is the upper envelope of the bid rent lines for all competing land uses
  • The gradient takes on a negative exponential form: decreasing with increasing distance, but with a decreasing slope.
  • In 3-D: It looks kind of like a one-pole circus tent!

Ri(X)

R*(X) = R0e-bX

X

urban land uses and bid rents
Urban Land Uses and Bid Rents
  • Urban translation of the definition:‘Economic’ or ‘Bid’ RentThe monetary return a developer can receive for developing a particular land use (e.g., apartment buildings, office complex, shopping center, single-family homes) on a unit of land after all the costs of development are taken into account and including the willingness of renters/buyers to pay for the level of accessibility provided by the location

BidRent

Office Buildings

Multi-family Residential (Apartments)

Single-family Residential

Agriculture

Edge of the Urbanized Area

X (Dist from CBD Center)

urban land uses and bid rents10
Urban Land Uses and Bid Rents
  • The basic von Thünen-style urban economics model describes a monocentriccity, such as during the omnibus, horsecar, and streetcar suburbs eras
  • Urban areas now polycentric: distance to multiple centers matters
  • What would a polycentric bid-rent land use map look like?
amenity versus location rent
Amenity versus Location Rent
  • How are rents actually determined in the ‘real world’?
  • Let’s take the case of y’all’s slumlords (or slumladies)
  • How do they go about figuring out how much they can gouge you for?

Rent = ‘Location Rent’ + ‘Amenity Rent’

  • Location Rent: Based on accessibility and supply and demand factors
  • How do supply and demand fit into the basic bid rent framework?
  • Amenity Rent: Amenities may be site-specific or externalities; externalities can be positive or negative
slide12
Practice Bid-Rent ProblemThese are the bid-rent functions for single-family residential land use, R S(x), and multi-family residential land use, RM(x), where xis the distance from the center of the CBD in kilometers:R S(x)= 20,000 – 2,000 x

RM(x)= 160,000 – 30,000 x

Where would we expect to find the boundary between multi- and single-family residential land use?

(A) At x = 0 km (D) At x = 5.333 km

(B) At x = 2 km (E) At x = 10 km

(C) At x = 5 km

Solution: Set R S(x)=RM(x)and solve for x…

20,000 – 2,000 x = 160,000 – 30,000 x

28,000 x = 140,000

x = 140,000 / 28,000 >>>> x =5 km

pop quiz name
POP QUIZName ____________________

These are bid-rent functions for single-family residential land use RS(x) and multi-family residential land use RM(x) where x is the distance from the center of the CBD in kilometers:

RS(x)= 20,000 – 2,000 x

RM(x)= 160,000 – 30,000 x

Suppose Agricultural land use can pay $2000 per unit of land regardless of how far out it is from the center :

R A(x) = 2,000

Find the distance xmax where we would expect to find the outer edge of the urbanized area. Show your work!

slide14
QUIZ SOLUTION. These are bid-rent functions for single-family residential land use R S(x) and multi-family residential land use R M(x) where x is the distance from the center of the CBD in kilometers:

R S(x)= 20,000 – 2,000 x

RM(x)= 160,000 – 30,000 x

Suppose Agricultural land use can pay $2000 per unit of land regardless of how far out it is from the center : R A(x) = 2,000

Find the distance xmax where we would expect to find the outer edge of the urbanized area. Show your work!

RS(x) = RA(x)

20,000 – 2,000 xmax= 2,000

18,000 = 2,000 xmax

xmax = 18,000 / 2,000 = 9 km

150,000

100,000

50,000

0

9

0

2

4

6

8

10