facial reconstruction anatomical method vs tissue depth method n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Facial Reconstruction Anatomical Method vs. Tissue Depth Method PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Facial Reconstruction Anatomical Method vs. Tissue Depth Method

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 40

Facial Reconstruction Anatomical Method vs. Tissue Depth Method - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 200 Views
  • Uploaded on

Facial Reconstruction Anatomical Method vs. Tissue Depth Method. Rebecca Tokodi. Introduction and Background Research Focus Materials and Methods Results Discussion Conclusion. Introduction and Background Anatomical Method. Uses origins and insertions to rebuild each muscle

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Facial Reconstruction Anatomical Method vs. Tissue Depth Method' - Ava


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide2
Introduction and Background
  • Research Focus
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
introduction and background anatomical method
Introduction and Background Anatomical Method
  • Uses origins and insertions to rebuild each muscle
  • Glands and fatty tissue rebuilt
  • Expertise in biomechanics and anatomy needed
  • Longer process than tissue depth method
  • Same for all ethnic groups
introduction and background anatomical method1
Introduction and Background Anatomical Method
  • Temporalis Muscle
  • Zygomaticus Muscle
  • Masseter Muscle
  • Orbicularis Oris
  • Parotid Gland
  • Buccal Fatty Pad
  • Fat Pad of the Chin

http://www.nysm.nysed.gov/research/anthropology/crsp/arccrsppearlstmethods2.html

introduction and background tissue depth method
Introduction and Background Tissue Depth Method
  • Uses 21 osteological landmarks

-11 bilateral points

-10 midline points

  • Soft tissue built up to depth markers

- soft tissue includes muscles, skin, fat, and glands

  • Depths given by previous studies

-collected by needle probe method or ultrasound

introduction and background tissue depth method1
Introduction and Background Tissue Depth Method
  • Depths given for different categories

-ethnic background

-age

-weight

  • Faster than anatomical method
  • Less anatomical training needed
slide7
Introduction and Background
  • Research Focus
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
introduction and background anatomical method2
Introduction and BackgroundAnatomical Method
  • Introduced in 1927 by Mikhail Gerasimov
  • 140 of Gerasimov’s reconstructions were identified and verified
  • Also known as the Russian Method
  • Used in an archeological context

-tissue depth of ancient population unknown

-museum exhibits

introduction and background tissue depth method2
Introduction and BackgroundTissue Depth Method
  • Introduced in 1895 by W.His
  • Made famous by reconstruction of Johann Sebastian Bach
  • Depths recorded by needle puncture method

-24 male cadavers

-4 female cadavers

  • Used widely today by law enforcement agencies for identifying the dead
slide10
Introduction and Background
  • Research Focus
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
research focus
Research Focus
  • A comparison of facial reconstruction methods, anatomical and tissue depth.
  • Factors that influence tissue depth
  • Frequency of use
  • Validity of results
slide12
Introduction and Background
  • Question
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
materials
Materials
  • Sculpting tools
  • Gauge (in millimeters)
  • Metal scale (in millimeters)
  • Sculpey III modeling clay
  • Acetone soluble adhesive
  • Vinyl machine eraser strips
  • Ping pong ball
  • High gloss paint
  • Plastic skull replica
methods
Methods
  • Determination of sex, race, and age
  • Creating prosthetic eye
  • Cutting depth markers
  • Placement of depth markers
  • Setting of prosthetic eye
  • Connecting tissue depth markers
  • Developing facial features
  • Photography
methods setting prosthetic eye
Methods Setting prosthetic eye
  • Center eye frontally
  • Projecting even with top and bottom of orbit
  • Secured by clay
  • Fatty pad behind eye deteriorates with age
methods connecting tissue depth markers
Methods Connecting tissue depth markers
  • Fill in by strips to almost cover depth markers
  • No clay is placed on midline points 3,4,5,6,7, and 8
  • No clay is placed on bilateral points 13 and 15
methods developing the mouth
Methods Developing the mouth
  • Closed mouth easiest
  • Vertical thickness of mouth is upper CEJ to lower CEJ (cement enamel junction)
  • Width is pre-molar to pre-molar
  • Artistic development of parting line and philtrum
methods developing the nose
Methods Developing the nose
  • Nasal aperture measured at widest width
methods developing the nose1
Methods Developing the nose
  • Projection given by:

Length of bony spine x’s 3

added to depth of marker 5

  • Shape of nose determined by shape of nasal aperture
slide25
Introduction and Background
  • Research Focus
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
results
Results
  • Caucasian
  • Adult male
  • Age- undetermined
results1
Results
  • 4.1% of children are biracial (U.S. Census 1990)
  • -number expected to increase
  • 2,000,000 multiracial children in married-couple households
results negroid and mixed population study
ResultsNegroid and mixed population study
  • Facial tissue for negroids is thicker in the upper and lower parts of the face- Lower lip, frontal eminence, and cheek area
  • Negroid female tissue depths were thicker in the lower lip, mental eminence, frontal eminence, lateral orbital margin, supra glenoid, and cheek area
results caucasoid and mixed population study
ResultsCaucasoid and mixed population study
  • Tissues thickness of the males of the mixed group was greater in the mid philtrum, upper lip, and gonial areas,
  • Tissue thickness of caucasoid males was thicker in the nasion, mental eminence, supra orbital, lateral orbital, and cheek regions
slide30
Introduction and Background
  • Research Focus
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
discussion
Discussion
  • Negroid males and females have thicker soft tissue compared to the mixed race population
  • The mixed race population had considerable differences compared to the caucasoid populations
  • The mixed race group is unique and measurements should not be considered an average between caucasoid and negroid populations
discussion1
Discussion
  • Argued that reconstruction is not meant to make exact portrait
  • Many variables that can influence the rate of identification
  • Too much of an artistic influence can change results
discussion2
Discussion
  • Increase in biracial individuals means an inability to apply tissue depths to reconstructions
  • Not ethical to use insufficient information
  • Caucasian becoming less defined
  • Easier when clues are left at the scene
  • Facial reproduction still widely used by law enforcement agencies- including FBI
discussion3
Discussion

http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/oct2000/ubelaker.htm

slide35
Introduction and Background
  • Research Focus
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
conclusion
Conclusion
  • More studies need to be conducted on biracial populations
  • Anatomical method new method of choice?
  • Other options of facial reproduction

-computerized methods