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Elastomer Developments for Sealing Automotive Climate Control Systems Using Carbon Dioxide. Dale M. Ashby & Gerhard Buch O-Ring Division Parker Hannifin. Topics to be Discussed. Introduction Design Theory Elastomer Development Theory CO2 Testing Programs Application Field Trials

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elastomer developments for sealing automotive climate control systems using carbon dioxide

Elastomer Developments for Sealing Automotive Climate Control Systems Using Carbon Dioxide

Dale M. Ashby & Gerhard Buch

O-Ring Division

Parker Hannifin

topics to be discussed
Topics to be Discussed
  • Introduction
  • Design Theory
  • Elastomer Development Theory
  • CO2 Testing Programs
  • Application Field Trials
  • Conclusions and Future Work
introduction
Introduction
  • Most Work has been Proprietary
  • Huge Variety of Lubricants Available
  • Many Hardware Challenges in Addition to the Elastomer Issues
  • Research Performed in US and Europe with Specific Customers
seal design
Seal Design
  • Design factors include:
    • Pressure Range of Operation
    • Temperature Envelope
    • Connector Geometry
    • Surface Finish of Mating Parts
    • Lubricant Used (type AND mfg)
    • Elastomeric recipe
    • Environmental Factors (vibration,safety,etc)
seal design5
Seal Design
  • Typical Design example:
    • CO2 Pressure of 2200 psig
    • Upper Temperature of 300 F
    • Lubricating Oils of PAG, PAO or POE
    • Seal Configurations include Bonded seals, O-rings, Square-cuts, and Custom Molded Shapes
slide6

Useful Temperature Range of Candidates

  • Ethylene Propylene (EPDM) -45 to 150C
  • Ethylene Acrylate (AEM) -35 to 150C
  • Ethylvinyl Acetate (EVM) -30 to 150C
  • Neoprene (Polychloroprene) (CR) -35 to 110C
  • Fluorocarbon (FKM) -30 to 200C
  • Hydrogenated Nitrile (HNBR) -35 to 150C
candidate refrigeration oils for co2
Candidate Refrigeration Oils for CO2
  • Mineral Oil
  • POE (PolyolEster)
  • AB(Alkyl Benzene)
  • PVE(Polyvinyl Ether)
  • PAG (Polyalkylene Glycol)
  • PAO(Polyalpha Olefin)
relative resistance of various polymers 168 hrs @ 100c
Relative Resistance of Various Polymers168 Hrs @ 100C

AEM FKM HNBR EPDM EVM

POE A

Hardness Chg, pts -5 +1 -6 -2 -7

Volume Chg, % +21.5 +8 +14 +9.8 +26

POE B

Hardness Chg, pts -6 +1 -9 -3 -7

Volume Chg, % +24.5 +15.5 +28 +17.1 +21

relative resistance of various polymers 168 hrs @ 100c9
Relative Resistance of Various Polymers168 Hrs @ 100C

AEM FKM HNBR EPDM EVM

PAG A

Hardness Chg, pts -5 -2 -9 -1 -9

Volume Chg, % +23 +9.8 +12 +8.5 +26.5

PAG B

Hardness Chg, pts -5 -3 -13 -9 -10

Volume Chg, % +31 +14.5 +27 +18 +39

effect of compounding on pag a oil resistance after 168 hrs @ 100c
Effect of Compounding on PAG A Oil Resistance after 168 hrs @ 100C

EPDM AEPDM B

Hardness Change, pts (Shore A) -1 -7

Volume Change, % +8.5 +17.9

Surface Deterioration None Moderate

effect of compounding on pag a oil resistance after 168 hrs @ 100c11
Effect of Compounding on PAG A Oil Resistance after 168 hrs @ 100C

FKM A FKM B

Hardness Change, pts (Shore A) -2 -8

Volume Change, % +9.8 +18.1

Surface Deterioration None Moderate

effect of compounding on pag a oil resistance after 168 hrs @ 100c12
Effect of Compounding on PAG A Oil Resistance after 168 hrs @ 100C

HNBR AHNBR B

Hardness Change, pts (Shore A) -9 -18

Volume Change, % +12.0 +38.5

Surface Deterioration Moderate Severe

slide13

CO2 Testing Program

Project Partners

FahrzeugHydraulik

slide14

Testing Program

Low and High Temperature Properties

Requirements (Compressor):

-40 to 150°C (suction) and

-40°C to 180°C (discharge + shaft seal)

Important: gas tightness required and dynamics (temperature cycles & vibrations)

slide15

Testing Program

Low Temperatures:

Test: Storage of elastomer specimen at below -40°C under air and CO2 atmosphere

Result: Significantly higher flexibility of samples being under CO2 atmosphere compared to those being under air.

slide16

Testing Program

High Temperatures:

Test: Heat aging of O-Rings 2 weeks @ 200°C under air and CO2 atmosphere

Result: Cracks, hardness increase & high com- pression set on EPDM under air atmosphere.Significantly better results under CO2

slide17

Testing Program

High Temperatures:

Test: Heat aging of O-Rings 2 weeks @ 200°C under air and CO2 atmosphere

Air

CO2

slide18

Testing Program

Explosive Decompression (ED)

Test: Rapid decompression within seconds after CO2 saturation at -42°C and 150°C. 5 repeated cycles at 150°C.

Result: HNBR C best (no damages), followed by FKM C and EPDM C. All other elastomers tested suffered partially heavy damages.

slide19

Testing Program

Explosive Decompression (ED)

Examples for typical damages:

slide20

Testing Program

Lubricant Compatibility

Test: Immersion of slabs in different lubricants 2 weeks @ 150°C

Result: Excellent compatibility of FKM C with Lubricants tested. EPDM C showed limitations with experimental POE & PAG formulations.

slide21

Testing Program

Volume Change [% ]

Hardness Change [IRHD]

25

0

20

-2

15

-4

10

-6

5

-8

0

-10

FKMLub. A

FKMLub. B

EPDMLub. A

EPDMLub. B

HNBRLub. A

HNBRLub. B

FKMLub. A

FKMLub. B

EPDMLub. A

EPDMLub. B

HNBRLub. A

HNBRLub. B

Lubricant Compatibility Results 2 weeks @ 150°C

Lubricant A = Conventional Lubricant, used for 134a

Lubricant B = Experimental High Performance Lubricant designed for CO2

slide22

Testing Program

Permeation Effects

Test: Permeation measurement on slabs

Result: In line with the results already published [1]. At high temperatures FKM, EPDM, FKM have similar performance. At temperatures near CO2 critical point permeation coefficient of FKM strongly increasing with pressure.

slide23

Testing Program

Permeation Effects

slide24

Application Field Trials

Compressor using O-Ring materials: FKM C & EPDM C, tests done by

Tests: High temperature aging, system bench tests, vehicle system tests.

Results: No system failure due to seals.

No damage found on seals which are related to temperature or lubricant exposure.

Low compression set values even for EPDM

Fluid compatibility major factor

FahrzeugHydraulik

slide25

Application Field Trials

Leakage measurement on different connector designs using FKM C & EPDM C O-Rings, tests done by Germany

Schematic connector sealing design example:

Installation guidance device

FKM O-Ring

EPDM O-Ring

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Lubricating Oil Compositions Vary Widely
  • Specific Elastomer Formulations must be Evaluated
  • Explosive Decompression Issues Continue
  • Design approach Must be Included in the Overall Solution
future work
Future Work
  • Evaluate Additional Lubricants
  • Develop Additional Tailored Recipes
  • Continue to Investigate Permeation Resistant Compounds
  • Investigate the ED Issue through Seal Designs and Novel Compounding
  • Evaluate Additional Design Concepts