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Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3 rd Edition. Chapter Five Training Design P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker. Input. Process. Output. Learning. Theory. Determine factors . that facilitate. learning & transfer. Develop. Training. Identify alternative.

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Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3 rd Edition


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    1. Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3rd Edition Chapter Five Training Design P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker

    2. Input Process Output Learning Theory Determine factors that facilitate learning & transfer Develop Training Identify alternative Training method of Needs instruction Chapter 6, 7 Objectives Evaluation objectives Organizational Chapter 9 Constraints Design Phase Chapter 5

    3. Constraints and Possible Ways of Dealing with Them – Part 1 of 3 Constraints Suggestion for How to Handle Need high level of simulation1 because: Law (fire drills) Task critical to the job (police firing gun) Mistakes costly (airline pilot) Incorporate a longer lead time to prepare simulations/role plays. Purchase Simulators. Trainees vary in amounts of experience Consider modularization. Trainees have large differences inability levels Use programmed instruction. Have high level of trainer/trainee interaction. Chapter 5

    4. Constraints and Possible Ways of Dealing with Them – Part 2 of 3 Constraints Suggestion for How to Handle Mix of employees and new hires trained on a new procedure Consider different training programs; may be negative transfer for employees but not for new hires. Long lag between end of training and use of the skill on the job Distribute practice through the lag. Provide refresher material and/or models for employees to follow. Short lead time Use external consultant or training package. Chapter 5

    5. Constraints and Possible Ways of Dealing with Them – Part 3 of 3 Constraints Suggestion for How to Handle Bias against a type of training (role play, etc.) Develop proof of effectiveness into the training package. Use another method. Few trainees available at any one time Use programmed instruction. Small organization with limited funds Hire consultant/purchase training. Join consortium. Chapter 5

    6. Guide to determining time required to prepare training – Part 1 of 3 Chapter 5

    7. Guide to determining time required to prepare training – Part 2 of 3 Chapter 5

    8. Guide to determining time required to prepare training – Part 3 of 3 Chapter 5

    9. Proposal for developing a one day workshop on Effective Communication Chapter 5

    10. Types of Costs in Training Programs • Development Costs – such as TNA • Direct Costs – actual cost of program • Indirect Costs – such as preparation costs • Overhead Costs – equipment, facilities • Participant Compensation • Evaluation Costs Chapter 5

    11. Training Costs for Grievance Reduction Training – Part 1 of 2 Chapter 5

    12. Training Costs for Grievance Reduction Training – Part 2 of 2 Chapter 5

    13. Program Objectives • Mager: “Description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent” • Specify what learners should be able to do, conditions under which they must do it, and criteria in judging success Chapter 5

    14. Performance Objectives • Objective Indicator • Understand how to Discriminate between read X-rays normal and abnormal X-rays • Knowledge of loans Recall procedure for making a loan • Ability to read Identify transistors diagrams on a schematic diagram Chapter 5

    15. False Objectives • Show an appreciation for loan procedures • Be able to think critically and analytically • Have a deep awareness and thorough humanizing grasp of interpersonal relations Chapter 5

    16. Conditions for Performance • Relevant and important conditions under which performance is expected to occur • “Repair a motor with two minor defects using a standard set of tools and diagrams” Chapter 5

    17. Criterion for Performance • How well trainees should be able to perform in order to be acceptable • Includes speed, accuracy and quality • Examples: finish in 20 minutes, no more that 2 errors, within a tolerance of .1 inch Chapter 5

    18. Types of Training Objectives – Part 1 of 2 (Kirkpatrick) Describes the desired trainee attitudinal and subjective evaluations of training 1. Trainee Reaction Objectives: 2. Learning Objectives: Describes the type of behavior that will demonstrate the learning, the conditions under which the behavior must occur, and the criteria that will signify that a sufficient level of learning has occurred Chapter 5

    19. Types of Training Objectives – Part 2 of 2 3. Transfer of Training Objectives: Describes job behaviors that will be affected by training, the conditions under which those behaviors must occur, and the criteria that will signify that a sufficient transfer of learning from training to the job has occurred 4. OrganizationalOutcome Objectives: Describes the organizational outcomes that will be affected by the transfer of learning to the job and the criteria that will signify that organizational outcome objectives have been achieved Chapter 5

    20. After Upon completion of training the trainee: Before Upon completion of training the trainee: Learning Objectives Improved – Part 1 of 2 After reading a scenario of an unmotivated student, and without the use of any outside material, identify orally to the class what you would do to motivate the student, and explain which theory you used and why. Trainee must identify at least 3 motivators and tie to correct theory. Must be correct on 4 of the 5 scenarios Will be able to apply theories of motivation to different situations Chapter 5

    21. After Upon completion of training the trainee: Before Upon completion of training the trainee: Learning Objectives Improved – Part 2 of 2 When asked, correctly identify to the trainer 5 things that are necessary to have an effective team. Will understand what is needed to have an effective team Will have knowledge of three types of active listening, and be able to use the appropriate one in a particular situation In a role play, appropriately respond to an angry comment using one of the active listening types, then correctly explain to the class which was used and why. Chapter 5

    22. Trainee Characteristics • Trainability = f(Motivation, Ability, Perceptions of work environment) • Perceptions of training • Self-efficacy • Factors that increase motivation • Personality and attitudes • Extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness, stability Chapter 5

    23. No Trait and Treatment Interaction Chapter 5

    24. A Trait and Treatment Interaction Chapter 5

    25. Social Learning Processes and Corresponding Training Events Attention/Expectancy Learning environment, pre-training communications, statement of objectives and process, highlighting of key learning points Retention Activation of memory Stimulation of prior related learning Symbolic coding and Presentation of encoding schemes and images, cognitive organization associations with previously learned material, order of presentation during training Symbolic rehearsal and Case studies, hypothetical scenarios, aids for cues for retrieval transfer (identical elements and principles) Behavioral Reproduction Active and guided practice (role plays and simulations) Reinforcement Assessment and feedback (positive and/or negative) Chapter 5

    26. Conditions of Practice • Active practice – can be mental practice • Massed vs. spaced practice • Rest intervals early in training • Less meaningful, greater difficulty and amount the better spaced practice • Less capable, less experienced learner does better with spaced practice • Retention better with spaced practice • Whole vs. part Chapter 5

    27. Conditions of Practice • Overlearning • Knowledge of results/feedback • Important aspects • Provisions of feedback • Specify corrective actions • Reward/punishment consequences Chapter 5

    28. Retention • Meaningfulness of material • Degree of original learning • Retroactive interference – new learning interferes with old learning • Proactive – old learning interferes with the retention of new learning Chapter 5

    29. Seven Step Relapse-Prevention Training 1. Choose a skill to retain 2. Set goals 3. Commit to retain the skill 4. Learn coping (relapse prevention) strategies 5. Identify likely circumstances for first relapse 6. Practice coping (relapse prevention) strategies 7. Learn to monitor target skill Chapter 5

    30. Coping Strategies for Relapse Prevention – Part 1 of 2 Understand the relapse process Recognize difference between training and work setting Create an effective support network on the job Identify high risk situations Chapter 5

    31. Coping Strategies for Relapse Prevention – Part 2 of 2 Reduce emotional reactions that interfere with learning Diagnose specific support skills necessary to retain new skill Identify organizational support for skill retention Chapter 5

    32. Transfer of Training Stimulus Response Transfer same same positive same different negative different different zero/none Chapter 5

    33. Increasing Transfer • Maximize similarity • Practice • Provide a variety of situations and examples • Understand general principles • Support • Opportunity to perform on the job • Feedback and reinforcement • Develop and follow learning objectives Chapter 5

    34. A Plan to Apply Skills Back on the Job 1. What skill/technique: (be specific) 2. What will using skill/technique look like: (be specific) 3. What are the positive and negative consequences of using and not using the skill. 4. What will a “slip” look like? 5. How will you feel if you slip back to old techniques? 6. Under what circumstances is a slip likely to occur? Chapter 5 7. What support is needed?

    35. Gagne-Briggs Nine Events of Instruction – Part 1 of 2 Chapter 5

    36. Gagne-Briggs Nine Events of Instruction – Part 2 of 2 Chapter 5

    37. Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design – 1 of 5 Chapter 5

    38. Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design – 2 of 5 Chapter 5

    39. Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design – 3 of 5 Chapter 5

    40. Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design – 4 of 5 Chapter 5

    41. Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design – 4 of 5 Chapter 5

    42. Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design – 5 of 5 Chapter 5

    43. Learning Curves • Negatively accelerated – material easy, experienced learner, high ability • Positively accelerated – material complex, learner inexperienced • S shaped – positively accelerated in early stages negatively in later (common) Chapter 5

    44. Plateaus in Learning • Hierarchy of habits • Motivation declines • Incorrect learning being eliminated • Learning material that is complex whole composed of several simple parts Chapter 5

    45. Perceptual Preferences • Print • Visual • Aural • Interactive • Tactile/manipulative • Kinesthetic/psychomotor • Olfactory Chapter 5