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DIRECT PHONICS Jo Wilson and Rea Reason 2003 - 2005. www.directphonics.co.uk E-mail: info@directphonics.co.uk. Book One: Single letters/sounds C-v-c words Sight words for sentences Book Two: Consonant blends (e.g. bl, tr) At beginnings and ends of words

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slide1

DIRECT PHONICSJo Wilson and Rea Reason

2003 - 2005

www.directphonics.co.uk

E-mail: info@directphonics.co.uk

slide2

Book One:

  • Single letters/sounds
  • C-v-c words
  • Sight words for sentences
  • Book Two:
  • Consonant blends (e.g. bl, tr)
  • At beginnings and ends of words
  • Vowel digraphs (e.g. ee, ay)
    • Book Three:
  • Compound words (e.g. sea-side)
  • Polysyllabic words (e.g. lem-on-ade)
  • Stories

Sentences

Words

Letters

Sounds

Model

Lead

Check

Cumulative and repetitive content

slide3

KEY ELEMENTS

  • Content cumulative and repetitive
  • Checks of progress make sure that children have consolidated their learning
  • Teaching method follows routine of ‘model-lead-check’
  • Children listen, speak, read and write in each lesson
  • Each lesson has the same predictable pattern
  • Instructions can be followed by both teachers and teaching assistants
slide4

CUMULATIVE AND VERY REPETITIVE CONTENT

NEW CONTENT REVISION

Block 1 a m s t

Lessons 1 to 6 am Sam at mat sat

I like Tim and

Block 2 d i a m s t

Lessons 7 to 12 dad mad sad is it sit at am Sam mat sat

Emma the on dog I like Tim and

Block 3 c p a m s t i d

Lessons 13 to 18 cat did as pat pit dip at am Sam mat sat

pip tip tap I like Tim and

my said see can Emma the on dog

slide5

THE COMPLETE TRACK OR THE FAST TRACK

  • The Complete Track teaches all 60 lessons.
  • The Fast Track covers two lessons from each of the 10 blocks, i.e. 20 lessons.
  • It is possible to switch between the Complete Track and the Fast Track:
  • If you start with the Complete Track and find that the children are not in need of that much repetition then …
  • If you start with the Fast Track and think that the children need more repetition then …
  • Later, progress may show that the children are ready to cope with the Fast Track again.
slide6

RESOURCES

  • Whiteboard and marker pens
  • Teacher’s lesson notes
  • A photocopied lesson sheet for each pupil
  • Pencil and writing paper/book for each pupil
slide7

THE ‘MODEL-LEAD-CHECK’ TEACHING METHOD

Holding the children’s attention

Two key words as signals:

‘Listen’: Before modelling the reading to the children, always begin by saying the word ‘listen’.

‘Ready’: Before asking children to respond in chorus or individually, begin by saying ‘ready’.

slide8

THE ‘MODEL-LEAD-CHECK’ TEACHING METHOD

  • Steps for the Supported Learning Procedure
  • Model: Write the letter or word on the board, point to it as you read it to the children (Start by saying ‘listen’ to get the children’s attention)
  • Lead: Point again and read in chorus together with the children (Say ‘ready’ to get the children’s attention and signal when to start)
  • Check the group: Point again and the children read together as a group (Say ‘ready’ to signal when they should start)
  • Check on individuals: Point to a letter/word/sentence and ask individual children to read it.
slide9

TEACHER LESSON NOTES

Notes for Lesson 1

Introduce sound/symbols: a m s Revise: -

Match sound/symbols: a m s

Make words: am Sam

Match words: Matrix (on pupil lesson sheet) Sight words: I like

Read: Matrix and sentences

Write: m s a am Sam

slide10

PUPIL LESSON SHEETS

Lesson 1

Match:

a m s

Match:

I like

am Sam

Read:I am Sam.

slide11

A SCRIPTED EXAMPLE OF LESSON 1

Pages 12-14

Activity 1: Say and match a m s

Activity 2: Make words am Sam

Activity 3: Match words like I Sam am

Activity 4: Reading

Activity 5: Writing

The script shows how each activity follows the ‘model-lead-check’ procedure.

slide12

TOP UP ACTIVITIES

Each of the 10 teaching blocks has a photocopiable page containing a grid with the words that have been learnt in the block.

  • The purpose is to:
  • Provide opportunities for further consolidation of learning.
  • Enable children to develop greater speed and fluency.
  • Help the children apply (generalise) what they have learnt.
  • Introduce some variation through different kinds of activities.
  • Enable the children to succeed with the end-of-block assessment.

The manuals contain example activities.

slide13

ASSESSING PROGRESS

  • Each teaching block ends with a page listing the words introduced in the block and a page of sentences for dictation.
  • Your judgment of the child’s progress depends on how accurately and fluently the child reads/writes.
  • It is difficult to state the exact ‘criteria’ for moving on to the next block. The blocks are cumulative and repeat the content of previous blocks.
  • The assessment will show whether the teaching is repetitive enough or too repetitive and enable you to switch between the Complete and the Fast Track.
slide14

RECORDING PROGRESS 1

  • It is very motivating to involve the children in the record keeping.
  • The simplest way is to list the words assessed in each teaching block and let the children give ticks to the words learnt.
  • It can be useful to check more than once so that the children give each word several ticks.
  • There are example individual record and summary group record forms.
  • There is a photocopiable Certificate of Achievement at the end of each teaching block.
slide15

RECORDING PROGRESS 2

  • Recording progress in sentence reading and writing
  • For each child, make a photocopy of the page that lists the sentences for assessment/dictation in the teaching block. Use it as a record by marking up the text as the child reads. For writing the sentences, the child’s own written work can act as a record.
  • Assessing progress when the Direct Phonics Book One has been completed
  • Each book has a table summarising learning outcomes. You can photocopy the table for each child and use it as your end of programme record.
slide16

WORKING TOGETHER

  • Involving children in recording their own progress
  • Teachers and teaching assistants working together
  • Teachers and parent and children working together
  • Use of story books
theoretical and research background
Theoretical and research background
  • Theoretical explanations: Phonology, fluency, emotional factors
  • Learning theory: Extensive research in USA into model-lead-check routine within a cumulative learning programme (Direct Instruction).
  • Early Reading Research (ERR): Mainstream primary in some 200 schools mainly within Essex. Principles of direct instruction central. Empirical results impressive.
  • Interactive Assessment and Teaching (IAT): Included in DfES management guidance on Wave 3 intervention. DP builds on this.
slide18

FORMATIVE EVALUATION OF BOOK ONE

Initial evaluation: 25 TAs, 12 schools, 152 children

  • Individual differences in the progress made
  • Organisational factors, e.g. working space
  • Group dynamics/concentration span/TA skill
  • School attendance
  • Links with classroom practice
  • The importance of ‘real reading’
evaluation in middlesbrough
Evaluation in Middlesbrough
  • Data frame: sample of volunteer schools
  • Specialist teacher undertook pre-post assessments
  • Information on the way manuals and their dissemination can be improved
  • Information on how schools are using the materials
  • Data from 25 children in 5 schools: Mean ratio gain is 1.54 (6 months gain in 4 months) on WRAPS (Word Recognition and Phonic Skills, Hodder &Stoughton, 1994)
observations by specialist teachers
Observations by Specialist Teachers
  • ‘Useful tool’, easy to set up and run in school
  • Format, structure and routine
  • Preparation time, timetabling and daily lessons
  • Content appeals to pupils and can be used flexibly
  • Staff see results quickly as do the children
  • Experienced staff can add to lessons and focus on different skills
  • It has not suited all children
  • Need for group register and a file for storing assessments.
research in tameside
Research in Tameside
  • 52 children in 7 schools
  • Pre-post assessment:
    • Direct Phonics content
    • WORD
    • PhAB
  • Results:
    • Children have learnt what they have been taught
    • PhAB scores have improved
    • Large individual differences on WORD
    • Organisational factors
    • Critique: ratio gains modest and no control groups
slide27

A broader model of evaluation: Direct Phonics

Theoretical and research basis Yes

Previous intervention studies Range

Normative tests and comparisons Some

Systematic curriculum-based assessment Yes

Individual differences Yes

Formative action research/organisation Yes

Motivation and emotion Yes