Dave Hill Professor of Education Policy, University of Northampton, UK Chief Editor, Journal for Critical education Policy Studies, www.jceps.com Fri 2 June
Global Policy and Ideological Context: Neoliberal Global Capitalism and Education Within Education the Agenda of Capita for/in Education comprises a: • Reduction in Expenditure on Public Education Services • A Campaign of Denigration of the Public Sector and Pub. Sect. workers • Capitalist Agenda for Schooling and Education- the production of hierarchically skilled and ideologically quiescent labour power • Capitalist Agenda in Schooling and Education- through pre-privatisation and privatization, to make profits out of it • New Public Managerialism mode of organisation and surveillance/ control • Capitalist Agenda for Education Business - British and United States (and other leading local capitalist states’) based corporations in the vanguard of privatisation and profit taking internationally • Differentiated Schooling and Education: cheaper, more tiered • Cheaper Teachers and Workforce: ‘para-teachers’, deregulation, decentralisation, union-busting
Introduction: • Global Policy and Ideological Context • What are the main ideologies in education/? • What are New Labour’s Education Policies? • What are their historical and ideological and welfare policy contexts? • What concepts of Social Justice do they embrace? • How sustainable are they?
Ideologies in Education • Two main ideologies of education and wider policy in Britain 1940s-1970s liberal-progressivism (1960s-1970s), and social democracy (1944-1970s). • The Radical Right in education and in wider policy: Neoliberalism and Neoconservatism: ThinkTanks, Thatcherism and Blairism…. ‘there is too much equality’ (and social justice) • New Labour’s education policies: six themes… contradictory but overall- inegalitarian. • Impacts and ideologies of New Labour’s education policies and wider policies. Who Wins, who loses?...which (‘raced’ and gendered class).. Non-sustainable competitive marketised individualistic concept of social justice… the opportunity to be even more unequal • Education: Egalitarian principles for schooling and education in Britain- a Left education manifesto. Sustainable economic and social justice? • Social Democracy, Reforms and Marxism, the Neoliberal Onslaught, and Resistance: some questions re sustainability of social justice
Ideologies: Social Democracy and Socialism…and now… New Labour (and other Social Dem. Govts. In W. Europe) • Labour governments (1945-51, 1964-70 and 1974-76) - broadly social democratic… strong socialist current. (2006…only 30 socialist MPs in Parliament, 1 RESPECT MP, the rest still in the Labour Party) emphasis on social class meritocratic concept of social justice • Labour was actually in power 1974 - 1979, but - 1976-79 changed policies – more emphasis on economic aims, less on social. Cuts. New Labour in govt. 1997- present… no socialism, a little social democracy, some neoconservatism, huge emphasis on neoliberalism.. Social justice subordinated to development of human capital • The Undemocratisation of New Labour: changes in the party organisation, membership, ideology: From a capitalist workers’ party, to a capitalist party? Unions leaving/ expelled/ withdrawing funding and putting it into campaigns instead
Social Democracy • full employment for workers • the welfare state, relatively high levels of public expenditure, • relatively high levels of taxation, especially on the rich, with redistributive taxation seen as a positive social good to create a fairer society • a mixed pseudo-Keynesian economy (i.e. an economic mix of public sector and private sector control and provision, together with government reflation of the economy during recessions) • trade union and workers’ rights and recognition of the positive role of trade unions in defending and negotiating the rights/ pay/ conditions of workers … trade union block vote at the Labour Party Conference
Social Democracy and education • comprehensive schooling: • expansion of educational opportunities and provision • local community involvement • local community control • a commitment to policies of equal opportunities, especially regarding social class • Affirmative action/ positive discrimination • curriculum and education system for meritocracy and a higher degree of social justice • But: how much did it do this… higher public expenditure, yes, trade union power yes, high taxation on companies and the rich…but within a strongly differentiated class system… schooling and education still reproductive of the economic and social relations of production: how sustainable is social democracy … a class balance under capitalism?
Liberal-Progressivism / Child-Centredness/ Student -centredeness and education … the hippy let it all hang out, individualistic hedonistic period in an era of full employment • child-centredness, • 'readiness' (e.g. reading readiness); • interdisciplinary topic work; • 'integrated day'; (not subject-based) • curriculum emphasis on 'relevance' • the teacher as a guide to educational experiences rather than a distributor of knowledge; • the non-authoritarian teacher as friend and guide;
'discovery learning'; • little competitive testing; • individual work and on group co-operation and group work, rather than on competitiveness • aim : flourishing of the individual. • But…. Did it ghettoise children within their own (‘raced’ and gendered) social class groups… without expanding horizons… without being bicultural (domestic/ elite cultures)… did it benefit middle strata and elite strata most? Was this social justice? How sustainable was it?
Neoliberal Policies • Low public expenditure • marketisation/ quasi-markets • selective education • relegation of most developing states and their populations to subordinate global labour market positions, specializing in lower skilled services • `new public managerialism’… surveillance, targets, intensification of work • privatisation • fiscal `rectitude’ • decentralisation • Deregulation • Union Busting: national pay and conditions agreements busted: unions weakened result: increasingly differentiated provision of services. (health, pensions, education)….. Class polarisation… increased inequalities between social classes, tiered schools, young people.
The Radical Right: Neo-Liberalism and Education • individualism, individual test performance; as part the neo-liberal personal ethics, where the general neoliberal vision is that every human being is an entrepreneur managing their own life and that this individual maximisation is more important than other (e.g collective responsibility/ social justice) ethics • privatisation/ private enterprise: support for private schooling and private enterprise /business involvement in schools, privatising national education services such as Ofsted and the Teacher Pensions Agency… pre-privatisation
market competition/consumer choice, e.g. different types of schools local (school-based) budgetary control), publication of the `league tables’ of schools’ test results, as ‘quality control’ and esteem marker for market position) • Business methods of management (new public managerialism) inc. surveillance of/ strict control over and measurement of standards and performance in public services, for example, rigorous inspections of schools, and teacher education `providers’, and national assessments of pupils at ages 7, 11, 14, 16, • Cuts in funding on education • anti-producer power/ distrust of the vested interests and `inefficiency' of professionals and workers in the public sector • Focus on producing tiered, compliant labour power: cost reduction vocational technicist uncritical basics education for the non-elite. • Schooling as an Ideological State Apparatus with Repressive moments
Neoconservative Policies • circumscription, the attempt to straightjacket students’, teachers’ and professors’ practices- their curricula, their pedagogy- the repressive use of the local state apparatus. • enforcement by the central state apparatuses. These include those of the security state. This includes blacklists, non-promotion of oppositional teachers and professors, public vilification and ridicule • ‘culture wars’ , the use of the ideological state apparatuses (some churches, many schools, nearly all mass media) to legitimate neoliberal and neoconservative ideology, `common-sense’, practices and beliefs. • …the appearance… but lack of… of ideological choice… the denial of class, the claims of meritocracy, the impeding of class consciousness
Neoconservative educationprinciples • tradition (e.g. the monarchy, traditional family (i.e. pro-marriage, anti homosexuality), anti-gay `Clause 28’ (of the 1988 Local Government Act). • 'back to basics' e.g. in sexual and social morality, in focusing on `the 3 Rs', and in pupil-teacher relationships… return to traditional teacher-centred, `chalk and talk’ pedagogy/ teaching methods • nation and nationalism (cf. pro-Europe or internationalist), focus on `Britishness’ within the National Curriculum, .. a `white, middle class, male curriculum’ monoculturalism and assimilationism regarding 'race' : opposition to both multi-culturalism and to anti-racism, both being hostilely labelled as `politically correct’. • authority, order and social control, for example within classrooms and schools, with teachers being exhorted to `dress smartly’ • elitism and hierarchicalism … resources targeted at the elite and the high achievers for example with the 1981 Assisted Places Scheme, the very first Conservative legislation of their 1979-1987 period
The Unity and Disunity of the Radical Right in Education • Thatcherism : populist amalgam of neo-liberal and neo-conservative ideology developed… a (neo-conservative)`strong state' defending the (neo-liberal) `free market‘ • The Radical Right: Four principles in common between the Neolibs and the Neocons: • opposition to and derision, distrust and disrespect for: • public services • socialist/Marxist egalitarianism • liberal-progressivism/ child-centred/ student-centred pedagogy and education • the theory purporting to underlie what the Radical Right sees as essentially practical activities, such as teaching and initial teacher education. • Neoliberalism and Neoconservatism: Global Similarities, National Variations
New Labour Achievements Universal nursery education for all 4 year olds… a significant expansion for 3 year-olds. In total there are 120,000 more free nursery places than in 1997' Sure Start (a programme aimed at helping pre-school children in poorer areas) to include 500 programmes, to support 400,000 under-4s, one-third of under-4s living in poverty, by 2004' Standards Overall •best ever results at ages 11, 14, 16 and 18’. Standards in Poor Areas • Expansion of Further and Higher Education • `Over a quarter of young people start Apprenticeships and we now have the highest number ever going to university. The proportion of 18 to 30-year-olds going into higher education has risen from an elite few of around six per cent in the 1960s to 44 per cent in 2004’
Staffing and Spending: More teachers and Support Staff • More teachers in schools – 28,000 more than in 1997 and 105,000 new support staff. Every secondary school will be rebuilt or refurbished over the next ten to 15 years’ School support staff numbers have doubled since 1997, to 269,000’ Spending on SchoolsSubstantial and sustained investment Spending on education in England real increase in funding of 29% per pupil, and significant investment in the workforce, in books and technology and in the fabric of the school estate. Teachers’ pay has increased 20% in real terms; and pay and promotion are increasingly linked to results and pupil progress’ Education Maintenance Allowances •for 16-18 year olds staying on at school’
Six Themes in New Labour’s Education Policy Theme 1: a social democratic theme: `Inclusion’: Targeted Expenditure, Redistribution and Spending Theme 2: a neo-conservative theme: `Back to Basics’: Curriculum, Pedagogy and Traditionalism. Theme 3: a neo-liberal theme: Managerialism: Target-Setting, Surveillance and Punishment Theme 4: another neo-liberal theme: Killing off the Comprehensives: Market Competition, New Schools and `Diversity’ and Selection Theme 5: yet another neo-liberal theme: `New Partnerships’: Pre-Privatisation, Corporation Control and Schools for Sale Theme Six: Education for Capital: the Social Production of Labour Power: Schools and Media as ideological and Repressive State Apparatuses.. keep’em in line, keep‘em skilled, keep’em in their place
Six Themes in New Labour’s Education Policy • Theme 1: a social democratic theme: `Inclusion’: Targeted Expenditure, • Redistribution and Spending • EAZs and Excellence in Cities • Ending `per capita’‘ funding • Increased Funding • Education Maintenance Allowances (EMAs) • Expansion of higher education. • Ending of Student Grants for higher education/ replacement by student loans • Public Expenditure • From 1999-00 to 2005-06 public spending will have risen by four-and-a-half percentage points of GDP, from 37.4% to 41.9%
Theme 2: a neo-conservative theme: `Back to Basics’: Curriculum, Pedagogy and Traditionalism. Curriculum Traditionalism… 'back to basics' in the curriculum with the Literacy Hour and Numeracy Hour in Primary schools). Pedagogy The assault on mixed ability teaching, return to teacher-centred pedagogy…. No critical pedagogy!!!! `Teacher Training’ Teacher training curriculum: prescriptive, heavily geared to skills training, and leaves very little time for the development of critical thought, or consideration of the social and political contexts of education/ schooling, or if issues such as social class, `race’ gender, special needs, sexuality …..a curriculum for conformity.
Theme 3: a neo-liberal theme: Managerialism: Target-Setting, Surveillance and Punishment Surveillance/ Monitoring 'getting tough', partly through `naming and shaming' 'failing' schools and LEAs, closing some schools down, and various measures to enable private `for profit’ corporations to take over `failing LEA’ services and opening up schools to takeover by `not-for-profit’ corporations. T Teachers are `tested’ for example when they apply for `Performance Related Pay' after 5 years teaching. Stratifying the teaching workforce, stratification of the workforce in schools, for example by Performance Related Pay (PRP) and the introduction of new `types’ and grades of teacher, on different rates of pay….. expansion in the number of teaching assistants Pay and Conditions A key element of Capital’s plans for education is to cut its labour costs For this, a deregulated labour market… ‘flexploitation’, casualisation
Theme 4: another neo-liberal theme: Killing off the Comprehensives: Market Competition, New Schools and `Diversity’ and Selection Policies on altering the structures of schooling- patterns of ownership, control, instituting different types of school. New Types of School: Academies …publicly funded independent schools with voluntary or private sector sponsors and control. at least 200 academies established by 2010 Academies…outside LEA control. …can set pay and conditions, and change/ `vary’ the curriculum. Specialist Schools allowed to select up to 10% of their pupils `by aptitude'. Those with more than 500 pupils have to raise £50,000 in sponsorship as part of their bids, …over 90% of all secondary schools in England will become `Specialist Schools' by 2006. Independent Trust Schools …many, or most, or all LEA controlled primary and secondary schools becoming, in effect, independent state schools’, outside of LEA/ local democratically accountable control- with the power to `vary’ the national curriculum- and `vary’ (alter) the pay and conditions of staff such as teachers, and `vary’ the `skill mix’ (e.g. the ratio of teachers to teaching assistants).
Theme 5: yet another neo-liberal theme: `New Partnerships’: Pre-Privatisation, Corporation Control and Schools for Sale Business Involvement in Schools: Academies For £2 you get a school…and £25 million of govt. money Independent Trust Schools `to the cynical, the trusts look like city academies without the £25m price tag. The key to understanding the Trust Schools lies in the White Paper description of them as "independent state schools". Privatisation Pre-Privatisation and Business Involvement the General Agreement for Trade in Services (GATS), and opening up to free trade in services by national and by multinational and foreign Capital (Glenn Rikowski). By currently encouraging private companies to bid for/ own/ run/ manage state schools, New Labour is actively encouraging future privatisation and private control of state schools.
Impacts and Ideologies of New Labour’s Education Policies… • Capital, Corporations and Education • Selection, Inequality, and (`Raced’) Class • The triumph of Neoliberalism: Greater equality of opportunity (via targeted spending) is suffocated by neo-liberal and neo-conservative policies. The quiescent, non-critical neo-conservative subject curriculum and hidden/ informal curriculum in schools serves to dampen- but not to suppress- resistance to an increasingly capitalised, commodified and unequal society. • RESULT… This process of increasing educational inequality is reflected in and amplified by wider social, housing, and fiscal and economic policies, which have resulted in increasing inequalities in the wider society • This is New Labour’s • `class war from above’…. .
An Alternative, Alternative Education Policy: an Egalitarian Education Policy: Sustainable Economic and Social Justice • vastly increased equality (of outcome) • comprehensive / common provision (i.e. no private or selective provision of schooling) • democratic community control over education, not private or religious or non-elected control • use of the local and national state to achieve a socially just (defined as egalitarian), anti-discriminatory society, e.g. affirmative action, rather than simply an inegalitarian meritocratic focus on equal opportunities to get to very unequal outcomes.
An Alternative Society: an Egalitarian Society • The Value of Reforms • The Limitations of Reforms in crises of capital accumulation • Social Democracy and Marxism • Problems of Social Democracy: an alibi for Capitalism • The Ravages and Dangers of Neoliberalism • Contemporary Resistance and Models
GOOGLE <dave hill Marxist> <dave hill education policy> and see the Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies www.jceps.com and the Institute for Education Policy Studies www.ieps.org.uk