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Cognitive Control Signals for Neural Prosthetics . Sam Musallam The Andersen Lab sam@vis.caltech.edu. What is a cognitive signal? . Signals that lie along the sensory to motor pathway but away from sensory and away from motor Not visual Not motor Encode higher order variables Intention

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cognitive control signals for neural prosthetics

Cognitive Control Signals for Neural Prosthetics

Sam Musallam

The Andersen Lab

sam@vis.caltech.edu

what is a cognitive signal
What is a cognitive signal?
  • Signals that lie along the sensory to motor pathway but away from sensory and away from motor
    • Not visual
    • Not motor
  • Encode higher order variables
    • Intention
    • Motivation
    • Value of a reward
cognitive based rather than motor based
Cognitive-based rather thanmotor-based
  • May require fewer cells, less invasive
  • Cognitive variables-expected value
  • Hierarchical control using smart machines

PMC

we are currently implanting 160 electrodes in prr and in dpmc
We are currently implanting 160 electrodes in PRR and in DPMC
  • - 32 electrode arrays
  • - Made from platinum and iridium
  • - 80 microns at the shaft
  • 2-3 micron tip
slide7

Decoding Goals

E

Reach Trials

Brain control trials

database built on memory period activity
Database Built on Memory Period Activity

Monkeys are in the dark and are not allowed to move

their:

  • Hands
  • Eyes

This memory period activity is cognitive

example of feedback performance 6 parietal neurons

75%

chance

chance

Example of feedback performance:6 Parietal neurons

Fixation maintained throughout trial.

Decoding 900 ms of memory period

more neurons also improve the decode dpmc
More neurons also improve the decode(dPMC)

8 targets decoded with 16 neurons

2 types of databases used
2 types of databases used
  • Adaptive
    • Database updated after every successful feedback trial
  • Frozen
    • Database ‘frozen’ after the end of the reach trials
decoding direction and reward from a monkey with no single units
Decoding Direction and Reward from a monkey with no single units

Without the reward schedule

barely above chance.

Reward schedule improves

decode

advantages of a cognitive prosthetics
Advantages of a Cognitive Prosthetics
  • Cognitive signals will allow us to directly determine the mood of patients
    • This can be done without requiring patients to indicate this preference using overt behavior.
  • Optimize control of prosthetic devices
    • counter neuronal sample biases.(surgical placement of electrodes, etc.)
    • allow multiple tool use.(update or variable functionality of prosthesis)
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Cognitive neural activity not directly related to visual input or motor output can be used for as prosthetic control signals.
  • Cognitive signals can also give us information about the patient’s preference or mood.
acknowledgment
Kelsie Pejsa

Lea Martel

Viktor Shcherbatyuk

Tessa Yao

Richard Andersen

Brian Corneil

Bradley Greger

Hans Scherberger

Grant Mulliken

Rajan Bhattacharyya

Igor Fineman

Bijan Pesaran

Daniella Meeker

Acknowledgment