Ch. 30.1 Women and Native Americans Fight for Change The Main Idea In the 1960s women and Native Americans struggled to achieve social justice. Reading Focus What led to the revival of the women’s movement? Which issues were important to the women’s liberation movement? What were the lives of Native Americans like by the early 1960s? How did Native Americans fight for fairness?
Revival of the Women’s Movement Experiences at Work • 1963 1/3 of workers • $0.60 per $1 • “women’s work” • JFK’s Presidential Commission on the Status of Women Experiences at Home • Homemakers is this all? • Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique Consciousness Raising • Group discussions discrimination?
The Women’s Liberation Movement • The women’s liberation movement = the feminist movement = the equal rights movement • Feminism the conviction that women and men should be socially, politically, and economically equal • Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned discrimination in employment
National Organization for Women (NOW) (1966) GOALS: • End gender discrimination in the workplace, schools, and the justice system • End violence against women • Gain abortion rights • Lobbied government, filed lawsuits, staged rallies and marches • Betty Friedan and Pauli Murray
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) • Promised equal treatment for men and women in all spheres, not just employment • Some saw the ERA as a threat to family life • Phyllis Schlafly and other conservatives campaigned to defeat the ERA • ERA defeated in 1982
Roe v. Wade (1973) • Supreme Court case that struck down state laws that banned abortion • Argued that such laws violated a constitutional right to privacy • Debate Pro-choice vs. Pro-life
Effects of the Women’s Rights Movement • # of women in professional jobs ↑ • More women in government • The feminist movement slowed its pace in the late 1970s • Only benefited wealthy white women???
Native Americans in the Early 1960s Living Conditions • Highest unemployment rates in the nation • Average income less than 1/2 of white men • Suffered disproportionately from poor health Termination Policy • Stop federal services to reservations and relocate Native Americans to cities • Policy = disaster for Native Americans A Movement • 1961 group of 700 Native Americans held a conference to oppose the termination policy • Drafted the Declaration of Indian Purpose • Red Power movement take control of their own lives
Native Americans Fight for Fairness • President Johnson established the National Council on Indian Opportunity to get Native Americans more involved in setting policy regarding Indian affairs • Red Power activism Native Americans political activists made important legislative gains. • Congress passed laws that enhanced education, health care, voting rights, and religious freedom for Native Americans
Occupation of Alcatraz • Group of Native Americans tried to reclaim Alcatraz Island • Lasted 18 months federal marshals removed the group by force • Drew public attention to the plight of Native Americans • Partly as a result, New Mexico returned 48,000 acres of land to the Taos Pueblo in 1970
American Indian Movement (AIM) • American Indian Movement founded in 1968 major force behind the Red Power movement • Called for: • renewal of traditional cultures • economic independence • better education for Indian children • Russell Means - Leader • AIM sometimes used forceful tactics • the Trail of Broken Treaties • Occupation of Wounded Knee 71 day armed occupation
Other Organizations Fight for Fairness • National Indian Education Association improve access to education • Native American Rights Fund provided legal services • Council on Energy Resource Tribes helped its member nations gain control over their natural resources and choose whether to protect or develop them • These groups and others worked to protect Native Americans’ rights, improve standards of living, and do it all in a manner consistent with Native Americans’ cultures and traditions
Progress? • Congress passed a number of laws in the 1970s to enhance education, health care, voting rights, and religious freedom for Native Americans • Red Power movement generated greater pride in Native Americans and wider appreciation of their culture • Native Americans continued to problems • Unemployment • High school dropout rate
Ch. 30.2 Latinos Fight for Rights The Main Idea In the 1960s Latinos struggled to achieve social justice. Reading Focus What were the lives of Latinos like in the early 1960s? What event launched Latinos’ struggle for social justice? What were the main goals of the movements for Latino rights?
The Lives of Latinos in the Early 1960s Latino person of Latin American descent Hispanic people of Spanish-speaking ancestry Population • ↑ during the 1960s • Immigration Act of 1965 Economic • 1/3 of Mexican American families below the poverty line • 2x as many Mexican Americans as white Americans were unemployed
The Lives of Latinos in the Early 1960s Education • Faced discrimination • Schools w/ less qualified teachers, fewer resources, and poor facilities • Few teachers were able to speak Spanish Politics • Far less power than the size of their population warranted • Electoral district boundaries reduced power • Few Latinos in office • Often excluded from serving on juries
Latinos’ Struggle for Social Justice • Social justice the fair distribution of advantages and disadvantages in society The Fight for Social Justice • Migrant agricultural workers, many were Latino: • Low wages for hard work • 1965 farm workers went on strike in Delano, California • National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) led by Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta • Chavez inspired many to fight discrimination
The Delano Grape Strike • Farm workers demanded a 15-cent increase in their hourly wage • 5,000 grape workers went on strike • Dolores Huerta and César Chávez helped • Lasted five years • Picketed the fields, marches, grape boycotts • Growers finally gave in and settled w/ the union • César Chávez national figure for nonviolent protest
The Chicano Movement • Shortened form of mexicanos • Ethnic pride and commitment to political activism • Reies López Tijerina and the Alianza Federal de Mercedes (Federal Alliance of Land Grants) • Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales founded the Crusade for Justice • Mexican American Youth Organization (MAYO) • José Angel Gutiérrez founded La Raza Unida Party (RUP) • The Brown Berets
Movement for Latino Rights Alianza • Focused on the enduring issue of land rights Crusade for Justice • Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales • Promoted Mexican American nationalism • Provided legal aid, a theater for cultural awareness, a Spanish newspaper, and other community services
Movement for Latino Rights Mexican American Youth Organization (MAYO) • José Angel Gutiérrez • Wanted to achieve economic independence for Mexican Americans, gain local control over the education of Hispanic children, and a third political party • School walkouts & demonstrations – ex: Crystal City, Texas La Raza Unida • Gutiérrez formed RUP (“the united people”) political party • Campaigned for: • bilingual education, improved public services, education for children of migrant workers, and an end to job discrimination
Movement for Latino Rights Brown Berets • Militant organization • Protesting against police brutality in East Los Angeles • Fought for bilingual education, better school conditions, Chicano studies, more Chicano teachers, and supported efforts of other Chicano groups
Movement for Latino Rights Boricua Movement • Name by which many Puerto Ricans refer to themselves • Expresses ethnic pride and support for political activism • Faced social and economic discrimination • Movement’s goals shifted to self-government for Puerto Rico and better conditions for all Puerto Ricans Cuban Americans • Many fled Castro’s Communist government • Many were professionals and business people • Most Cuban Americans who organized for change in Cuba
Ch. 30.3 Culture and Counterculture The Main Idea The counterculture that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s left a lasting impact on American life. Reading Focus • What led to the rise of the counterculture? • What was life like in the counterculture? • How did mainstream American society react to the counterculture? • What legacy did the counterculture leave behind?
Counterculture v. the Establishment • Counterculture rebellion of teens and young adults against mainstream American society in the 1960s • Hippies • Establishment mainstream culture
The Youth Culture • Baby Boomers • Blamed parents’ generation for problems • Nuclear threat • Discrimination • Vietnam War • Pollution • Beatniks (1950s)
Rising Student Activism • Rebellion on college campuses against “restrictive” or “unjust” policies • UC at Berkeley student protests • Free Speech Movement • Civil disobedience • Mainstream shocked at the questioning of authority
Life in the Counterculture Living Arrangements • 1,000s left school, jobs, and traditional home life • Rejected materialism and work ethic • Haight-Ashbury in SF • Communes
Life in the Counterculture Hippie Culture • Enlightenment • Eastern Religions • Drugs • LSD (Timothy Leary) & marijuana • Clothing/Appearance • Casual, comfortable, colorful, long hair • Flower children
Life in the Counterculture The Counterculture’s Decline • Peak of hippie movement was 1967 Summer of Love • Freedoms led to problems with addiction, disease • No means of supporting ($) • Lack of rules = conflicts
Mainstream Society Reacts • Viewed hippies as dirty, disrespectful, uncivilized, and threatening • Felt society was unraveling • No right and wrong • TV show All in the Family • Generation gap
The Counterculture’s Legacy Attitudes • More casual • Dress • Lifestyles & behavior • People explored once taboo topics
The Counterculture’s Legacy Art and Film • Pop art appeal to popular tastes • Andy Warhol • Film censorship rules relaxed • Film rating system
The Counterculture’s Legacy Music • Rock and roll became an outlet for expression & communication • The Beatles • Political songs • Bob Dylan • Woodstock Music and Art Fair • Celebration of an era