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Introduction to virtual environments Glenn Bresnahan glenn@bu.edu Outline High level overview of VR hardware and software (details will be covered throughout the year) Demonstration of a VR world 3D Display Wall – how we see in 3D Animation Rendering DAFFIE VR software environment

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introduction to virtual environments

Introduction to virtual environments

Glenn Bresnahan

glenn@bu.edu

outline
Outline
  • High level overview of VR hardware and software (details will be covered throughout the year)
    • Demonstration of a VR world
    • 3D Display Wall – how we see in 3D
    • Animation
    • Rendering
    • DAFFIE VR software environment

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

intro to demo physical environment
Intro to demo – physical environment
  • 3D Display Wall
    • Stereoscopic
    • 3D glasses
  • Navigation
    • Game controller
    • Left joystick:
      • Moves U/D
      • Moves R/L
    • Right joystick:
      • Moves F/B
      • Turns P(L)/S(R)
    • Start button: reset

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

intro to demo virtual environment
Intro to demo - virtual environment
  • Multi-person, multi-site shared virtual space
    • Navigation
    • Avatar representation
    • Telephony

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

3d display stereopsis
3D Display – stereopsis
  • Stereoscopic display
    • Stereopsis – left and right eye view

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

stereoscopic display
Stereoscopic display
  • Viewmaster

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

3d display polarization
3D display - polarization
  • Light is a wave

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

3d display polarization8
3D display - polarization
  • Polarization aligns light in a plane

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

3d display polarization9
3D display - polarization
  • Polarizing filters used to align light
  • Filters rotated 90 degrees block light
  • Two projectors, one per eye view
    • Polarizing filters rotated 90 degrees
    • Matching glasses

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

3d stereoscopic displays other techniques
3D stereoscopic displays – other techniques
  • Colored (red-blue) glasses
    • Anaglyph
  • Circular polarizer
  • Shuttered glasses
  • Dual (head-mounted) display

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

animation
Animation
  • What is animation?
  • Animate: to give life to; to bring to life

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

animation12
Animation
  • What is animation?
  • Traditionally applied to cartoons
  • Creation of apparent motion from still images

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

animation pictures in motion
Animation – pictures in motion

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

animation component images
Animation – component images

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

animation principles
Animation - principles
  • Creating moving image from a sequence of still images
    • Each image is displayed for a fraction of a second
  • Basis for film,

video,

computer

graphics, etc.

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

animation traditional
Animation – traditional
  • Each image (cell) was hand drawn

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

animation film and video
Animation – film and video
  • Film – individual images (frames) are photographically reproduced on film strip
  • Video – individual images (frames) are recorded or transmitted as electrical signals

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

animation computer graphics
Animation – computer graphics
  • Computer generates individual images (frames) and displays them rapidly on a monitor
    • Technology is very similar to video
    • Images may also be recorded to film (e.g. CG special effects) or video

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

rendering
Rendering
  • Creation of a pictorial representation
    • Generally applied to a realistic depiction of a 3D scene or object
  • Types of rendering
    • Artistic rendering
    • Photographic rendering
    • Computer rendering

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

artistic rendering
Artistic rendering
  • Rendering realistic images (perspective)

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

artistic rendering21
Artistic rendering

Gone bad

Trompe l’oeil

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

photographic rendering
Photographic rendering
  • Camera and film

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

photographic rendering23
Photographic rendering
  • Camera obscura

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

computer rendering 3d
Computer rendering (3D)
  • Computer creates an image from a model
  • A model is a (mathematical) description of the 3D object

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

computer rendered image
Computer rendered image

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

computer rendering 3d26
Computer rendering (3D)
  • Computer takes into account the position of the object, as well as the position of the viewer (simulated or virtual camera).
  • Computer will shade the objects based on position of lights and the surface's material properties.

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

computer rendering process
Computer rendering process

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

computer models
Computer models
  • Conceptually like a blueprint

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

computer models29
Computer models

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

computer models30
Computer models

begin ./table/items <default>

setxfm

1.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00

0.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00

0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 0.000000e+00

0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 1.000000e+00

putprp cull 1

begin ./table/items/cube polygon

setxfm

1.500000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00

0.000000e+00 1.500000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00

0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 1.500000e+00 0.000000e+00

2.000000e+00 -1.500000e+00 -1.250000e+00 1.000000e+00

defpnt 1 -1.000000e+00 -1.000000e+00 -1.000000e+00

defpnt 2 -1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 -1.000000e+00

defpnt 3 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 -1.000000e+00

defpnt 4 1.000000e+00 -1.000000e+00 -1.000000e+00

defpnt 5 -1.000000e+00 -1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00

defpnt 6 -1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00

defpnt 7 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00

defpnt 8 1.000000e+00 -1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00

defpoly 1 2 3 4 0

defpoly 8 7 6 5 0

defpoly 3 7 8 4 0

defpoly 2 1 5 6 0

defpoly 2 6 7 3 0

defpoly 1 4 8 5 0

putprp color 3ff

end ./table/items/cube

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

computer animation
Computer animation
  • Generate multiple images by changing the viewing (i.e. camera) position
  • Reposition one or more objects between frames

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

computer animation32
Computer animation
  • Render a sequence of models

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

computer animation33
Computer animation

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

daffie software
DAFFIE Software

Distributed Applications Framework For Immersive Environments

Glenn Bresnahan

Erik Brisson

Robert Putnam

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

what is vr ve
What is VR/VE
  • Definitions
    • Immersive, natural interaction, believable
  • Characteristics
    • 3D appearance
    • Stereoscopic display
    • Large display, wide field of view
    • 1st person view
    • Navigation within 3d space (natural interface)
    • Response to physical position of viewer
    • Realistic audio

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

daffie worlds
DAFFIE Worlds
  • Multiple participants
    • Represented by an avatar
    • Interact with each other
      • Telephony
    • Interact with virtual objects
  • Shared virtual space
    • All participants experience the same virtual world

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

daffie worlds37
DAFFIE Worlds
  • Shared space divide into rooms
  • Doorways (portals) between rooms
  • Rooms contains objects
  • Objects
    • 3D appearance (3D model)
    • May be animated (sequences of models)
    • May have an appliquéd (2D) image (textures)
    • May have associated sounds (digital audio)
    • May react to avatars (people) or other objects (behaviors via agents)

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

daffie worlds using images
DAFFIE Worlds – Using images
  • Images may be appliquéd to the surface of an object

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

daffie worlds using images39
DAFFIE Worlds – Using images
  • Objects may be flat or curved
  • Images may be animated by using a sequence of images

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

daffie software components
DAFFIE Software Components
  • 3D viewer
  • Sound server
    • Telephony
    • Audio mixer & player
  • Navigation
  • Behavior agents
  • Audio/video generators/processors
  • Object generators/manipulators
  • DAFFIE components communicate over the network

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

daffie software environment
DAFFIE Software Environment

telephony

behavior

agent

viewer

behavior

agent

sound

player

event server

behavior

agent

sound

player

telephony

viewer

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

daffie viewer
DAFFIE Viewer
  • Supports multiple display devices from workstations to CAVEs
  • Directly supports advanced input devices (3D trackers, wands, etc).
  • Simple script-based world description
    • Geometric models
    • Animation
    • Sounds
  • Many 3D model formats
  • Local control of time-sensitive animation and sound
  • Broadcasts avatar motion and object state information to other components

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

daffie sound server
DAFFIE Sound Server
  • Provides telephony between participants
  • Mixes and plays multiple sound sources
    • Real-time audio streams (e.g. telephony)
    • Prerecorded object sound files
  • Sound is localized in 3D space
    • Originates at 3D virtual object location
    • Heard relative to the avatar’s position
    • Played relative to listener position in physical space (when tracked)
  • Sound player output
    • Multi-channel localized audio signals which can be played into a speaker array

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

daffie navigation
DAFFIE Navigation
  • Advanced device support built-in to the viewer
  • Windows-based navigation client
    • Game controllers
    • Hand-held pointing devices (Gyro Pointer)
    • Mouse
    • Keyboard
  • Can control one or more avatars

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006

daffie behavior agents
DAFFIE Behavior Agents
  • Control object behavior
  • Proximity triggers
  • Portals
  • Device interfaces
    • Kinematic sculptures
  • Video sourcing (camera)
  • Audio and video processing

BPC: Art and Computation – Fall 2006