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Bioreactor Analysis and Operation Chapter 9&10 (textbook). Overview of bioreactors Modified batch and continuous reactors Scale up/down Immobilized cell systems Operation consideration Sterilization Bioreactor Instrumentation and control. Bioreactor Analysis and Operation.

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bioreactor analysis and operation chapter 9 10 textbook
Bioreactor Analysis and OperationChapter 9&10 (textbook)
  • Overview of bioreactors
  • Modified batch and continuous reactors
  • Scale up/down
  • Immobilized cell systems
  • Operation consideration
  • Sterilization
  • Bioreactor Instrumentation and control
slide2

Bioreactor Analysis and Operation

  • Fermentation processes

- solid state: water content: 40~ 80%, mostly mold fermentation on agriculture products and food: rice, wheat, barley, corn and soybean.

e.g.rotary drum fermentator

- submerged systems: water content > 95%

e.g. bacteria, yeast.

bioreactor analysis and operation
Bioreactor Analysis and Operation
  • Overview of bioreactors for submerged system

- Classification:

operation modes:

- batch: stirred tank

- continuous: chemostat, fluidized-bed

- modified types of the above modes: fed-batch, chemostat with recycle,

multi-stage continuous reactors

Oxygen supply:

- aerobic: airlift

- anaerobic

  • Form of biocatalyst:
  • free cell (enzyme)
  • immobilized cell (enzyme)
  • packed-bed, membrane reactor
slide4

Industrial Bioreactor

Glacial Lakes Energy in Watertown, South Dakota

47+ million gallon per year ethanol production .

slide5

World's Largest Industrial Fermenter (Chem. Eng. News,10-Apr-78)

The fermenter is 200' high and 25 ft diam.

requirements for cultivation methods
Requirements for Cultivation Methods
  • Biomass concentration which must remain high
  • Sterile conditions being maintained
  • Effective agitation so that the distribution of substances in the reaction is uniform
  • Heat removal
  • Creation of the correct shear conditions - high may damage cells, low may lead to flocculation or growth on wall and stirrer
chemostat with cell recycle

X1, S

v

Chemostat with Cell Recycle

- To keep the cell concentration higher than the normal steady-state level in a chemostat.

- To increase the cell and growth-associated product yield.

- For low-product-value processes: e.g. waste treatment.

fuel ethanol

,

chemostat with cell recycle8
Chemostat with Cell Recycle

Cell mass balance (qp=0, kd ≈0, X0=0,Monod equation is applied):

where µ=µnet=µg-kd

A chemostat can be operated at dilution rates higher than

the specific growth rate when cell recycle is used.

chemostat with cell recycle10
Chemostat with Cell Recycle

Mass balance on growth-limiting substrate (qp=0, kd ≈0, X0=0,Monod equation is applied):

chemostat with cell recycle11
Chemostat with Cell Recycle

No recycle

µm=1.00h-1, S0=2.0g/l, Ks=0.01 g/l, Yx/s=0.5 g/g,

concentration factor C=2.0 and recycle ratio α=0.5

chemostat with cell recycle12

X1, S

v

Chemostat with Cell Recycle

Cell mass balance around the cell separator.

example chemostat with cell recycle
Example-Chemostat with Cell Recycle

Organisms are cultured in a chemostat with cell recycle. The system is operated under glucose limitation.

Determine specific growth rate μnet, S in the reactor effluent, cell concentration in the recycle stream (CX1) and in the concentrator effluent (X2)

If the concentrator has a volume of 300 mL, what is the residence time in it?

fed batch
Fed-Batch

Nutrients are continuously or semi-continuously fed, while effluent is removed discontinuously.

- overcome substrate inhibition or catabolite repression by intermittent feeding of substrate by maintaining low substrate concentration.

for production of secondary metabolites e.g. antibiotics, lactic acid, E. Coli making proteins from recombinant DNA technology.

fed batch15
Fed-Batch

Analysis of fed-batch with substrate continuously fed

and no output: t=0, V0=0, F is constant.

Volume:

At quasi steady state, S added=S consumed,

X, S, P concentrations are constant.

Cell mass balance:

(Monod growth model applied)

fed batch16
Fed-Batch

M

where S≈0

assuming X≈Xm

M

where Xt=Xt0 at t=0

fed batch17
Fed-Batch

(g)

qp (i.e. g product/g cells-min)

at Pt=Pt0, t=0

example fed batch
Example: Fed- Batch

In a fed-batch culture operating with intermittent addition of glucose, the value of V is given at time t=2hr, when the system is at quasi-steady state.

Determine V0.

At t=2 hr, find S, X and Xt and P at quasi-steady state if qp=0.2 g product/g cells-h, P0=0.