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Biometrics and Authentication. Shivani Kirubanandan. Lets Define !. “ A biometric is a physiological or behavioral characteristic of a human being that can distinguish one person from another and that theoretically can be used for identification or verification of identity.”.

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biometrics and authentication

Biometrics and Authentication

Shivani Kirubanandan

lets define
Lets Define !

“A biometric is a physiological or behavioral characteristic of a human being that can distinguish one person from another and that theoretically can be used for identification or verification of identity.”

biometrics as authentication
Biometrics as Authentication

Authentication depends on

  • What you have
  • What you know
  • What you ARE !
why biometrics
Why Biometrics?
  • Identity thefts
  • Something you know can be stolen
  • Predicted or hacked
  • Reliability on manual verification
application categories
Application Categories

Biometric applications available today are categorized into 2 sectors

  • Psychological: Iris, Fingerprints, Hand, Retinal and Face recognition
  • Behavioral: Voice, Typing pattern, Signature
biometric authentication process
Biometric Authentication Process
  • Acquisition
  • Creation of Master characteristics
  • Storage of Master characteristics
  • Acquisition(s)
  • Comparison
  • Decision
the metrics of bio metrics
The metrics of Biometrics
  • FTE – Failure To Enroll
  • FTA – Failure To Accept
  • FAR – False Acceptance Rates
  • FRR – False Reject Rates
essential parameters
Essential parameters
  • Liveness testing
  • Tamper resistance
  • Secure communication
  • Security Threshold level
  • Fall back node
fingerprint recognition
Fingerprint recognition
  • Divides print into loops, whorls and arch
  • Calculates minutiae points (ridge endings)
  • Comparisons
  • authentication
fingerprint techniques
Fingerprint techniques
  • Optical
  • Capacitive
  • Thermal
  • Ultrasonic
disadvantages
Disadvantages
  • Racial issues
  • Dirt , grime and wounds
  • Placement of finger
  • Too big a database to process
  • Can be spoofed –liveness important!
hand geometry
Hand Geometry
  • Geometry of users hands
  • More reliable than fingerprinting
  • Balance in performance and usability
disadvantage
Disadvantage
  • Very large scanners
retinal scanning
Retinal Scanning
  • Scans retina into database
  • User looks straight into retinal reader
  • Scan using low intensity light
  • Very efficient – cant be spoofed!
disadvantages15
Disadvantages
  • User has to look “directly”
  • FTE ratio high in this biometric
  • Acceptability concerns
    • Light exposure
    • Hygiene
iris scanner
Iris Scanner
  • Scans unique pattern of iris
  • Iris is colored and visible from far
  • No touch required
  • Overcomes retinal scanner issues
  • Contact lenses an issue?
face recognition
Face recognition
  • User faces camera
  • Neutral expression required
  • Apt lighting and position
  • Algorithms for processing
  • Decision
issues
Issues
  • Identification across expression
  • FRR or FAR fluctuate
  • Easily spoofed
  • Tougher usability
  • High Environmental impact
behavioral
Behavioral
  • Voice
  • Signature
  • Typing pattern
voice recognition
Voice Recognition
  • Speech input
    • Frequency
    • Duration
    • Cadence
  • Neutral tone
  • User friendly
disadvantages23
Disadvantages
  • Local acoustics
  • Background noise
  • Device quality
  • Illness , emotional behavior
  • Time consuming enrollment
  • Large processing template
signature recognition
Signature Recognition
  • Signature measures (dynamic)
    • Speed
    • Velocity
    • Pressure
    • Captures images (static)
    • High user acceptance
issues25
Issues
  • Signature variable with
    • Age, illness, emotions
    • Requires high quality hardware
    • High FRR as signatures are very dynamic
typing patterns
Typing Patterns
  • User typing pattern
    • Speed
    • Press and Release Rate
    • Unique patterns are generated
    • comparisons
issues27
Issues
  • Not very scalable
  • FRR is high
  • Can be spoofed – by simple technology (recorders)
usability issues in biometrics
Usability issues in Biometrics
  • User acceptability
  • Knowledge of technology
  • Familiarity with biometric characteristic
  • Experience with device
usability issues
Usability issues…
  • Environment of use
  • Transaction criticality
  • Time consuming tasks
biometric solutions
Biometric solutions
  • Educate
  • Train
  • Explain Interfaces
  • Use Trainers
  • Supervised Playtime
general issues
General issues
  • FTE posses problem
  • Biometric characteristics are not encrypted
  • Trust on input device
  • Cannot authenticate computers!
  • Privacy attack?!
current applications
Current applications
  • Banks
  • Immigration facilities across USA
  • IDwidget – interesting research
  • Eyegaze at Stanford
class task
Class task
  • Sell your biometric product

Case1

A bank needs an appropriate authentication mechanism to allow remote user transactions. What kind of multifactor system would you sell them?

class task34
Class task…

Case 2:

  • Suggest certain areas in which biometrics would prove disastrous
  • Note- You may suggest a particular combination of biometrics which may be disastrous to security and privacy