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Special Topics in Robotics Design and Control of Devices for Human-Movement Assistance A Versatile and Safe Mobility Assistant * Article review Kim, Min-Jung 2001/6/12 * A. Lankenau and T. Rofer, IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, March, 2001, pp. 29~37

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a versatile and safe mobility assistant

Special Topics in Robotics

Design and Control of Devices for Human-Movement Assistance

A Versatile and Safe Mobility Assistant*

Article review

Kim, Min-Jung

2001/6/12

*A. Lankenau and T. Rofer, IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, March, 2001, pp. 29~37

bremen autonomous wheelchair project
Bremen Autonomous Wheelchair project
  • Covers mainly
    • Spatial cognition
    • Safe system
    • Mobility assistant for the handicapped
  • Implements
    • Obstacle avoidance + Driving and routing assistant in a shared-control system
principle idea
Principle idea
  • A shared-control system
    • The wheelchair changes the dangerous target command into a safe one.
safety layer 1 4
Safety Layer (1/4)
  • Local Obstacle Map
    • A quadratic array of cells, each of which encodes the presence of an obstacle at the corresponding position in the environment of the wheelchair
    • The wheelchair’s current rotational deviation to the map is continuously updated
safety layer 2 4
Safety Layer (2/4)
  • Adaptive Sonar Firing Strategy
    • 27 ultrasonic sensors
    • Can only fire 2 of its 27 sensors simultaneously. It involves the risk of overlooking relevant obstacles.

 Firing strategy is needed

safety layer 3 4
Safety Layer (3/4)
  • Adaptive Sonar Firing Strategy
    • Determine the firing sequence from
      • The wheelchair’s current movement direction, steering angle, and the data represented in the map

The adaptive static firing strategy

A static firing strategy

safety layer 4 4
Safety Layer (4/4)
  • Stopping in time
    • The following things must be considered
      • The wheelchair’s deceleration and its reaction time
      • The travel distance to the closest obstacle
elementary skills 1 3
Elementary skills (1/3)
  • Smooth speed control
    • Early detection of obstacles can make the wheelchair decelerate in a smooth manner
    • The user can concentrate on steering
elementary skills 2 3
Elementary skills (2/3)
  • Obstacle avoidance
    • The assistive system infers the will of the user whether the user moves to right or left and reinforce the trend
elementary skills 3 3
Elementary skills (3/3)
  • Turning around
    • Wheelchair turning is difficult because of the kinematical restriction
    • It resembles the problem of parking a car
    • Automatic turning is needed
the mobility assistant
The mobility assistant
  • The driving assistant
    • It combines above three elementary skills for the users to concentrate on steering
  • The route assistant
    • The large scale navigation is done by it especially for the users who have amnesia*

*amnesia: Partial or total loss of memory, usually resulting from shock, psychological disturbance, brain injury, or illness

conclusion
Conclusion
  • The Bremen Autonomous Wheelchair is designed for the handicapped in a shared-control manner
  • Implemented safety layer and elementary skills for the user’s safe and comfortable navigation