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T y p o g r a p h y The art of letter style and design j g A H Y t i b K S M e z D L u o x g A H Y t b K S M e z D L u o x The different styles are called typefaces .

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t y p o g r a p h y

Typography

The art of letter style and design

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The different styles are called typefaces.

Many of the types are given the name of the designer who created them, or the name of the design era it originated from.

E.g.Times New Roman, Tudor, Victorian, Old English, Bauhaus, Caesar, Edwardian, etc.

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Different styles of type faces can create different appearances, thoughts and attention.

The name given to a variety of characters – in the same size and style is a font.

Typefaces/fonts are measured by points.

CAPITAL letters are classed as being in upper case . . .

. . . while small letters are lower case.

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Serif and Sans-Serif

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Letters with serifs look like this:

While letters without serifs (sans-serifs) do not have the additional stokes, so look like this:

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Typefaces can be changed by adapting the size, weight, colour and spacing around it.

However, a major factor to consider is legibility.

Quick changes which can be made to a type face by adding:

  • Bold
  • Italics
  • Shadows, etc.

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  • Other aspects of typography to be considered are:
  • Word spacing
  • Letter spacing
  • Line spacing

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Line Spacing

With a line spacing too small the letters will merge together.

Especially with ascending letters e.g. b, d, f, h, k, l, t . . . and also with descending letters e.g. g, j, q, y.

The space between each line of text is known as leading.

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Word spacing

This is the spacing between words.

The space between words in lower case letters should be the size of a small ‘o’.

The space between words in capital letters should be the size of a large ‘O’.

Thisisthespacingbetweenwords.

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Letter spacing

This is the space between each letter.

In some cases letters need to be adjusted to make sure the word is visually even spaced – this is known as kerning.

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Take a look the below image – of a newspaper heading.

Compare it to the second image.

Which looks the most professional?

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Quick Questions

What does san-serif mean?

Give two changes which can be quickly made to a typeface.

What is kerning?

Give an example of two ascending and descending letters.

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