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Transport in plants. Water and dissolved nutrients upwards from the roots. Carbohydrates produced in leaves to rest of plant. Transport in plants. How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?. Transport in plants. Movement of carbohydrates through vascular system is called translocation.

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transport in plants
Transport in plants
  • Water and dissolved nutrients upwards from the roots
  • Carbohydrates produced in leaves to rest of plant
  • Transport in plants

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

transport in plants2
Transport in plants
  • Movement of carbohydrates through vascular system is called translocation
  • How do plants transport carbohydrates?
  • Carbohydrates produced in photosynthetic organs (usually leaves) and often stored in roots
  • Movement of carbohydrates is through phloem
  • Phloem consists of two types of cells:
  • Sievecells: living cells stacked on top of each other
  • Sieve-tubemembers: similar to sieve cells but found only in angiosperms (flowering plants)

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

transport in plants3
Transport in plants
  • Mass-flow or pressure-flowhypothesis:
  • How do plants transport carbohydrates?
  • Carbohydrates move from source (site produced or stored) to sink (site used)
  • Carbohydrates actively transported into phloem at source
  • High concentration of carbohydrates causes greater osmotic pressure in phloem; water moves in from adjacent xylem by osmosis
  • Water influx creates (turgor) pressure inside phloem; pushing water and dissolved carbohydrates through phloem
  • At sink, carbohydrates actively removed from phloem; reducing osmotic pressure in phloem
  • water leaves phloem and reenters xylem, maintaining a osmotic pressure gradient between sources and sinks

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

transport in plants4
Transport in plants
  • Mass-flow or pressure-flowhypothesis:
  • How do plants transport carbohydrates?

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

transport in plants5

Fertilizer numbers (e.g.10-15-10) refer to these macronutrients

Transport in plants
  • Macronutrients (required in relatively large amounts)
  • Nutrients required by plants
  • 9 macronutrients including:
  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Micronutrients (required in trace amounts)
  • 7 micronutrients including:
  • Chlorine
  • Iron
  • Manganese

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

transport in plants6
Transport in plants
  • Most nutrients needed by plants obtained from soil
  • Nutrients required by plants
  • Most roots found in topsoil
  • Mineral particles (nutrients)
  • Living organisms (particularly detritivores)
  • Humus (partly decayed organic matter)
  • Some plants in acidic bogs obtain Nitrogen by trapping and digesting insects (e.g. Venus flytrap)
  • Legumes house Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules
  • Most plants have mycorrhizal fungi that enhance nutrient uptake by increasing surface area of ‘roots’

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

transport in plants7
Transport in plants
  • Water ‘absorbed’ by root hairs (projections of epidermis cells)
  • How do plants get nutrients and water into roots?
  • Root hairs greatly increase surface area over which to ‘absorb’ water
  • Root hairs have greater osmotic potential than soil
  • osmotic (or solute) potential = pressure that must be applied to stop osmosis
  • Root cells actively pump ions (use ATP) into cells
  • High concentration of ions creates a greater osmotic pressure in plant than surrounding soil water; water moves into cells by osmosis

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

transport in plants8
Transport in plants
  • How do plants get nutrients and water into vascular system of roots?
  • Water and ions enter root hairs and move between or through membranes of cells of cortex
  • Casparian strips block water movement; force water through cell membranes of endoderm
  • Endodermal cells selects nutrients that enter vascular tissue (xylem)

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

transport in plants9
Transport in plants
  • Xylem includes 2 types of dead, hollow, tubular cells
  • How do plants get nutrients and water up xylem?
  • Vessel members: slightly large diameter; cells stacked
  • Tracheids: smaller diameter; side to side overlap
  • Vessel members only occur in angiosperms (flowering plants)

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

transport in plants10
Transport in plants
  • Water molecules sticks to walls of xylem (adhesion) and to each other (cohesion)
  • How do plants get nutrients and water up xylem?
  • Water moves through xylem in unbroken column
  • Air on leaf surfaces causes water to evaporate, creating a ‘pull’ on the water column
  • Essentially, osmotic pressure of air is greater than osmotic pressure within leaves
  • Process of evaporative water loss in plants is called transpiration

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

transport in plants11
Transport in plants
  • 90% of water ‘absorbed’ by roots lost through transpiration in leaves
  • Transpiration
  • Transpiration through stomata, pores in epidermis of leaves
  • Transpiration rate regulated by two guardcells surrounding each stoma (or stomate)

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

transport in plants12
Transport in plants
  • Action of guard cells
  • Guard cells open when water moves into cells by osmosis (i.e. cells are turgid)
  • Transpiration
  • Turgor results from active uptake of Potassium (K+) ions; and subsequent influx of water by osmosis

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

transport in plants13
Transport in plants
  • Water lost by transpiration through stomata
  • Conflicting requirements of plants
  • But water needed for metabolic activity such as photosynthesis
  • If plants prevent water loss by closing guard cells then no CO2 can enter for photosynthesis
  • How do plants solve the conflict?
  • Surprise, surprise … different plants have different solutions
  • First, a review of photosynthesis...

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?