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TRAINING PRINCIPLES & PERIODIZATION PEP 201 University of Idaho There is a difference between Physical Activity and Exercise… Physical Activity (PA) Any Body Movement carried out by your skeletal muscles and requiring energy. Exercise (EX)

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training principles periodization

TRAINING PRINCIPLES & PERIODIZATION

PEP 201

University of Idaho

there is a difference between physical activity and exercise
There is a difference between Physical Activity and Exercise…
  • Physical Activity (PA)
    • Any Body Movement carried out by your skeletal muscles and requiring energy.
  • Exercise (EX)
    • Planned, Structured, Repetitive Movement of your body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness.

PA is good for health, but EX IS NECESSARY TO IMPROVE PHYSICAL FITNESS!

recall that there are 5 components of physical fitness for which we are interested
Recall that there are 5 components of physical fitness for which we are interested…
  • CR Endurance
  • MS Strength
  • MS Endurance
  • Flexibility
  • Body Composition
slide5
To develop your fitness, there are fundamental training principles you must consider for each component…
  • FITT
  • Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE)
  • Specificity
  • Variety
  • Individualization
  • Reversibility
  • Warm-ups & Cool-downs
the fitt principle should anchor all of your fitness programming
The FITT principle should anchor all of your fitness programming!
  • Frequency
    • How Often you should workout.
    • Example: 3 runs per week.
  • Intensity
    • How Hard you should workout each session.
    • Example: Each run is performed at 70% of my maximal heart rate.
  • Time
    • How Long you should workout each session.
    • Example: Each run is 20 minutes long.
  • Type
    • The Type of exercise you are performing.
    • Example: I will use RUNNING to improve my fitness.
to apply fitt appropriately you must also employ the pre principle
To apply FITT appropriately, you must also employ the PRE principle.
  • Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE)
    • Placing Increasing Amounts of Stress on your body will cause adaptations that improve fitness.
    • Example: The legend of Milo
specificity and reversibility are also important for fitness development
Specificity and Reversibility are also important for fitness development…
  • Specificity
    • Your body will adapt to a Particular Type and Amount of stress placed upon it.
    • Example: Rock Climber Forearms
  • Reversibility
    • Fitness improvements are lost when the Demands on your body are Lowered.
    • Example:“Use it or Lose it!”
and don t forget about variety and individualization
..and don’t forget about variety and individualization
  • Variety
    • Alternating exercises, load, speed, and equipment to avoid boredom and monotony.
    • Example: dumbbell bench press vs. barbell bench press
  • Individualization
    • Treating each client based on potential, experience, sport, activity, etc.
    • Example: Olympic sprinter vs. warehouse worker
and the importance of warm ups and cool downs cannot be overlooked
and the importance of Warm-ups and Cool-downs cannot be overlooked!
  • Warm-ups are beneficial because they:
    • Safely Prepare your body for EX and PA.
    • Create an opportunity for Optimal performance.
    • Example: Jogging  Running
  • Cool-downs are necessary to:
    • Safely Transition your body from an exercising to resting state.
    • Improve the Recovery Process.
    • Example: Walking or Stretching After a Workout.
exercise and application of the training principles manipulates your metabolism
Exercise and application of the training principles manipulates your Metabolism…
  • Metabolism
    • Sum of the Chemical Processes necessary to maintain your body.
    • Food is chemically converted to Fuel for use or storage.
      • Carbohydrates (CHO): immediate fuel and fuel storage.
      • Fats: sustained fuel and fuel storage.
      • Proteins: useful for building processes.
    • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
      • The Most Basic Form of Usable Energy in your body.
      • ATP synthesized from CrP, CHO, Fats, and Proteins.
      • ATP broken down to release energy for physical work.
and trains your 3 energy systems
and trains your 3 Energy Systems…
  • Anaerobic (Does Not NeedOxygen to produce/use ATP)
    • 1) Immediate Energy System/Alactic (ATP-CP)
      • Utilizes stored ATP-CP for rapid, very high-intensity activity.
      • Energy production limited to ~ 10-30 sec.
      • Example: Lifting heavy weights or sprinting 100m.
    • 2) Glycolytic/Lactic Acid System
      • Breaks down CHOs to produce ATP for short-term, high-intensity activity.
      • Lactic Acid created which can aid or hurt performance.
      • Energy production limited to ~ 30 sec. – 2 or 3 min.
      • Example: Circuit weight training or running 800m.
and trains your 3 energy systems13
and trains your 3 Energy Systems…
  • Aerobic (Needs Oxygen to produce ATP)
    • 3) Oxidative System
      • Breaks down CHOs and Fats to produce ATP in cellular mitchondria for sustained low-moderate intensity activity.
      • Energy production extends beyond ~ 2-3 min.
      • Example: Sitting down in class or running a marathon.

You’re always using a combination of these three systems – The type of exercise dictates the predominant energy system!

while engaging in a fitness program you can expect
While engaging in a fitness program, you can expect…
  • Initial fitness improvements are usually rapid and substantial.
    • This is typically seen in the first 4-6 weeks.
  • Slower gains with proper, extended training.
    • Proper application of the training principles is critical to elicit improvement after 4-6 weeks.
  • A plateau or decrease in progress with improper training.
    • Incorrect application of the principles and/or doing the same thing forever Will Not Yield Further Improvements in fitness.
    • Eventually, a decline in fitness or an increase in injuries will follow.
so to optimize your progress you should use periodization
So, to optimize your progress you should use Periodization!
  • Periodization
    • Planned Variations in your exercise that cumulatively improve your fitness and performance.
    • It strategically manipulates the fitness principles to optimize training.

Periodization is the smartest way to stay in shape! It should be applied to all types of exercise & training!

for example periodized vs non periodized programs typically yield the following progressions
For example, Periodized vs. Non-Periodized Programs typically yield the following progressions…

First 4-6 Weeks

Periodized Program

FITNESS

Non-Periodized Program

TIME

in a nutshell the take home message is
In a nutshell the take home message is…
  • There are Basic Training Principles that apply to all forms of exercise and fitness.
  • Exercise trains your Metabolism, or Energy Systems, which yields fitness improvements.
  • Periodization can optimize your fitness progression.

Rome wasn’t built in a day!

Patience and Persistence will yield great rewards!