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Discovery Seminar 175555/UE 141 M – Fall 2008 Solving Crimes using Referent Tracking The time of a killing September 10 PowerPoint Presentation
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Discovery Seminar 175555/UE 141 M – Fall 2008 Solving Crimes using Referent Tracking The time of a killing September 10, 2008 Werner CEUSTERS Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences Ontology Research Group University at Buffalo, NY, USA

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slide1

Discovery Seminar 175555/UE 141 M – Fall 2008Solving Crimes using Referent Tracking The time of a killingSeptember 10, 2008

Werner CEUSTERS

Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences

Ontology Research Group

University at Buffalo, NY, USA

last week s homework 1
Last week’s homework (1)
  • On September 9th, 1935, Carl Austin Weiss shot Senator Huey Long in the Louisiana State Capitol with a .35 calibre pistol. Long died from this wound thirty hours later on September 10th. Weiss, on the other hand, received between thirty-two and sixty .44 and .45 calibre hollow point bullets from Long's agitated bodyguards and died immediately.

Sorensen, R., 1985, "Self-Deception and Scattered Events", Mind, 94: 64-69.

  • Questions:
    • Did Weiss kill Senator Long ? If so, when did he kill him ?
  • Hint:
  • Send me answer by email (ceusters@buffalo.edu) not later than Sept 8, 2008, 10 PM.
when did the killing happen

Bodyguards’shooting of Weiss

When did the killing happen ?

time

Carl Weiss’ living

Weiss’ shooting of Long

2?

Long’s pathological body reactions

1?

Weiss’s path. body reactions

Senator Long’s living

If 1: Long was not dead after he was killed

If 2: Long was killed by a dead person

last week s homework 2
Last week’s homework (2)
  • Both answers are problematic
  • Question: how to solve the puzzle ?
  • Hint:
  • Send me answer by email (ceusters@buffalo.edu) not later than Sept 8, 2008, 10 PM.
slide5
S9
  • ‘Since Carl Austin Weiss was shot and killed while Huey Long was still alive, He could not have killed him after his death. Long was not dead before he died, so he did not do it while he was alive. Instead, Weiss would have to be convicted of attempted murder on Huey Long, since that is the act he committed while he was still alive. Since Long's death took place after his, this is the charge that can be brought against him.’

S9 did not answer the questions

S9 holds that Weiss caused Long to die.

0%

slide6
S13
  • ‘Yes Weiss shot Senator Long. Later events cannot alter or undo earlier events that took place. Weiss shot Long beforeWeiss was killed so therefore Weiss should have been charged for murder if he was still alive. Even though he is not alive, Weiss is still a murderer because he was conscious (aware) of what he was doing when he did it. Nevertheless, he murdered Senator Long while he was alive.’

S13 Does not answer the questions,

but holds that Weiss caused Long to die.

0%

slide7
S8
  • ‘The way I see it, Weiss did kill Long before being bombarded with a barrage of bullets ultimately putting an end to his own life. Even though Weiss was dead by the time Long ultimately passed away due to complications, it was the bullets shot out of Weiss's gun through Weiss's own physical motion (pulling the trigger) that condemned Long. The fact that the bullet wounds guaranteed Long would pass away at some point due to pathological reactions directly caused by the damage would basically set aside any doubt that Weiss would not be considered a murderer. Even though Long passed away after Long did, the damage had already been done when they were both alive. The fate of Long had been sealed, and it is at this point in the crime where such generalizations can be made. I doubt I'm right, but it's the way I see it.’

S8 maintains at least the thesis that one can kill a person without that person being dead after the killing.

S8 holds that Weiss caused Long to die.

25%

when did the killing happen according to s8

Bodyguards’shooting of Weiss

When did the killing happen according to S8 ?

time

Carl Weiss’ living

Weiss’ shooting of Long

Long’s pathological body reactions

Weiss’s path. body reactions

Senator Long’s living

What S8 said

What S8 hopefully meant

slide9
S12
  • ‘Well, Senator Long was killed by Weiss. Even though Weiss was killed by Long’s bodyguards and died immediately before Long died, the bullet that came from Weiss gun and wounded Long disturbing his body reaction later causing him to die. So Weiss is the murderer.’

S12 does not answer the ‘when’ question.

S12 holds that Weiss caused Long to die.

25%

slide10
S3
  • ‘According to the information given Weiss did shoot senator Long and Long did die so Weiss did kill Long. I would say that Weiss killed Long at the same time that Long’s body guards were shooting Weiss. When the body guards saw the first shot that was given to Long they began shooting at Weiss and the impact of the bullets killed Weiss instantly whereas when Long was killed he died a few hours later only because his body reactions were different then Weiss'.’

S3 maintains the thesis that one can kill a person without that person being dead after the killing.

S3 holds that Weiss caused Long to die.

25%

when did the killing happen according to s3

Bodyguards’shooting of Weiss

When did the killing happen according to S3 ?

time

Carl Weiss’ living

Weiss’ shooting of Long

Long’s pathological body reactions

Weiss’s path. body reactions

Senator Long’s living

slide12
S1
  • ‘Weiss fired a gunshot, fatally killing Senator Long. The time at which Senator Long was struck by the bullet is different from the time he died but it doesn’t change the fact that the bullet was the cause of his death. When Weiss shot the gun, he meant to kill Senator Long and mortally wounded him at that point in time, even though Senator Long died 30 hours later.’

S1 does not answer the ‘when’ question.

S1 holds that Weiss caused Long to die.

Does S1 hold that not only persons but also gunshots can kill persons ? Can you kill somebody non-fatally ?

S1 points out the intention to kill.

25%

slide13
S5
  • ‘Did Weiss kill senator long?
    • in the eyes of the law he did. but literally no, Weiss pointed a weapon capable of killing at the senator and pulled the trigger. that was all Weiss had to do. the bullet from the gun caused a mortal wound in the senator, which the senator died from 30 hours later.
  • If so, when did he kill him?
    • Weiss started a chain of events, and the senator was killed when he was "dead," 30 hours later.’

S5 does not motivate the ‘when’ question.

S5 holds that Weiss caused Long to die.

40%

when did the killing happen according to s5

Bodyguards’shooting of Weiss

When did the killing happen according to S5 ?

time

Carl Weiss’ living

Weiss’ shooting of Long

Long’s pathological body reactions

Weiss’s path. body reactions

Senator Long’s living

slide15
S7
  • ‘The killing began when Senator Long was shot. However, because he could not technically have been killed until his death occurred, that is when the killing actually happened. He was still killed by Weiss (even though Weiss was dead) because the cause of death was directly linked to the gunshots received by Weiss.’

S7 holds that Weiss caused Long to die.

If Long would not have died, was there then still a “beginning of a kill” ?

50%

when did the killing happen according to s7

Bodyguards’shooting of Weiss

When did the killing happen according to S7 ?

time

Carl Weiss’ living

Weiss’ shooting of Long

Long’s pathological body reactions

Weiss’s path. body reactions

Senator Long’s living

Long could cry out: “Help, I am being killed”

slide17
S11
  • ‘I believe that the actual murder takes place when the person officially dies. I know that this would mean that the person was killed by a dead man but the action was in the past. It does not matter what state the murder is in when he dies it is impossible to undo the past and what he did. There is no denying that he is the murder and at the time he was alive it is completely independent where the murder is when the person dies the only thing that matters is that he caused it.’

S11 motivates the ‘when’ answer insufficiently. Why would it not matter for a killer to be alive ?

S11 holds that Weiss caused Long to die.

50%

when did the killing happen according to s11

Bodyguards’shooting of Weiss

When did the killing happen according to S11 ?

time

Carl Weiss’ living

Weiss’ shooting of Long

Long’s pathological body reactions

Weiss’s path. body reactions

Senator Long’s living

slide19
S4
  • ‘Of course Weiss killed the Senator. The conflict is apparent when the Senator finally dies. Because, at that point Weiss was already dead so how could he kill him? He killed him when he shot him(1) in the beginning. He did not technically kill him then, but attempted to kill him. The injuries from the shots from Weiss is what killed him. Weiss is responsible for his death, but when he shot him, he did not kill him (2), only severely injuring him. It is a chain of events that caused the death of the Senator, starting with the shooting, then the injuries of the shooting caused his final death. He may still have been alive after Weiss shot him and after Weiss died, but he is still responsible for the death therefore would be charged with the murder of Senator Long.’

S4 is self-contradictory (see (1) versus (2)), but seems to ‘feel’ where a beginning of the solution is.

Is it (attempted to kill) or (attempted (to kill)) ?

S4 holds that Weiss caused Long to die.

S4 holds that not only persons can kill but also wounds.

When did the wounds kill Long ?

75%

slide20
S2
  • ‘There are three phases in murder: Initialization (attempt), process, and result. Initialization phase is when the attempt to kill an individual is made. Key component in this phase is ‘malicious intend’. During the second phase: process, any pathological reaction take place (for example, bleeding). Last phase, result is usually the death of the victim.
  • Whether killer was successful or not, it is unavoidable fact that he or she provided causation for potential death of the victim. Therefore, we may conclude that ‘killing’ occurs during the first phase (initialization or attempt) instead of second or third, for there are exceptions to those two phases. There is no exception to the first. Killer attempts to kill victim with full intention of doing so. The death has virtually occurred when the killer pulls that trigger, although actually death will occur in later point of time in reality. Therefore, we may assume that ‘killing’ occurs during the first phase even though ‘death’ happens during the last phase.’

S2 seems to ‘feel’ where the beginning of a solution is: it is a problem of ontology.

S2 holds that Weiss caused Long to die.

Does S2 maintain that malicious intend is required to kill ?

85%

when did the killing happen according to s2

Bodyguards’shooting of Weiss

When did the killing happen according to S2 ?

time

Carl Weiss’ living

Weiss’ shooting of Long

Long’s pathological body reactions

Weiss’s path. body reactions

Senator Long’s living

process

initialization

result

slide22
S10
  • ‘Weiss killed Long when he shot him. Long did not die till later, but was killed when he was shot because of the fact that he died. If Long was to survive then in describing this event one would switch the description from, “Weiss was shot and killed by long," to, “Weiss was shot and wounded by Long." The killing happens at the time of the event that the cause of death takes place. We could also just pass by this question simply by stating, "Weiss shot Long and hours later Long died from the gunshot.“’

S10 seems to ‘feel’ where the beginning of a solution is: it is a problem of description. Thus considers the problem a nominal one.

S10 holds that Weiss caused Long to die.

99%

when did the killing happen according to s10

Bodyguards’shooting of Weiss

When did the killing happen according to S10 ?

time

Carl Weiss’ living

Weiss’ shooting of Long

Long’s pathological body reactions

Weiss’s path. body reactions

Senator Long’s living

the semiotic semantic triangle
The semiotic/semantic triangle

Meaning of “Killing”

View/perception/understanding/…

The word “Killing”

An act of “Killing”

language

reality

homework
Homework
  • Several students gave distinct descriptions of what they understood “killing” to be.
  • Plot the 4 distinctions shown on the next slide on the semantic triangle, PLUS one other description that you find in some dictionary.
    • This means: give for each meaning a definition which is such that:
      • There is only one interpretation possible
      • For each event which might be a killing, at least one of the definitions is applicable
  • DUE: Monday 15, before 10 PM, by email as usual.
four distinct meanings for killing

Bodyguards’shooting of Weiss

Four distinct meanings for ‘killing’

time

Carl Weiss’ living

Weiss’ shooting of Long

Long’s pathological body reactions

Weiss’s path. body reactions

Senator Long’s living

k1

k3

k4

k2