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The Neolithic Revolution. Farming and the Emergence of Complex Societies 10,000 – 1,000 BCE. 1,000 years ago. Today. 10,000 years ago. Domestication of Plants and Animals. Farming. Population Intensification. Surplus Food. Specialization.

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slide1

The Neolithic Revolution

Farming and the Emergence of Complex Societies

10,000 – 1,000 BCE.

slide4

1,000 years ago

Today

10,000 years ago

Domestication of Plants and Animals

Farming

Population

Intensification

Surplus Food

Specialization

Complex Society,

also known as

CIVILIZATION

The Neolithic Period - - - Rise of Complex Societies

slide5

animals

and plants

One of the major changes is reflected in this frieze on a

wall in Mesopotamia (today Iraq) :

which reflects the DOMESTICATION of…

slide6

Domestication of plants and animals was a monumental change.

Have you ‘herd’ about pastoralism?

It resulted in the new way of living we know as

FARMING

(AGRICULTURE)…

…which included both PASTORALISM

(herding sheep, goats, cattle, horses, and camels),

and…

slide7

Crop-growing

(cultivating domesticated plants),

and…

slide8

the development of…

FARMING COMMUNITIES

slide9

The Neolithic Revolution

Independent Development vs.

Cultural Diffusion

  • Areas of Independent Development:
  • SW Asia (wheat, pea, olive, sheep, goat)
  • China & SE Asia (rice, millet, pig)
  • Americas (corn, beans, potato, llama)
  • Areas of Agriculture Through Diffusion:
  • Europe
  • West & Sub-Saharan Africa (?)
  • Indus River Valley (rice cultivation)
slide10

Eastern North America

China

Fertile Crescent

Nile valley

West

Africa

Mesoamerica

New Guinea

Ethiopia

Andes

Amazonia

Between about 12,000 and 1,000 BCE, farming

appeared INDEPENDENTLY in a number of places,

possibly in all of the places marked in red on the map.

slide11

Prior to farming, population size in any

one area was limited

by the availability of wild game, grain, berries, seeds, and nuts.

POPULATION

INTENSIFICATION

Farming and the large, relatively dependable crops it provides allowed for…

That means population increases in certain areas. Population in those areas became both larger and denser.

slide12

At the same time, farmers in some places were, in spite of population growth,

able to produce

SURPLUS food.

What does

SURPLUS FOOD PRODUCTION

mean for a society?

slide13

SURPLUS FOOD PRODUCTION…

…means that not everyone has to grow food or tend animals. They can take on other tasks. They can specialize in some non-farming task.

slide14

This is called…

  • Job Specialization.
  • Men and women may become:
  • Weavers
  • Stone Masons
  • Potters
  • Priests
  • Scribes
  • Traders
  • Army officers
slide15

Domestication of Plants and Animals

Farming

Population

Intensification

Surplus Food

Specialization

Complex Society,

also known as

CIVILIZATION

slide16

The Neolithic Revolution

Metal Working: From Copper to Bronze

  • The working of metals became very important to early human settlements for tools & weapons.
  • Early settlements gradually shifted from copper to the stronger alloy bronze by 3,000BCE—ushers in the Bronze Age!
  • Metal working spread throughout human communities slowly as agriculture had.
slide17

The Neolithic Revolution

Further Technological Advancements

slide18

The Neolithic Revolution

Early Human Impact on the Environment

  • Deforestation in places where copper, bronze, and salt were produced.
  • Erosion and flooding where agriculture disturbed soil and natural vegetation.
  • Selective extinction of large land animals and weed plants due to hunting & agriculture.
slide19

The Neolithic Revolution

Advanced Civilization: The Next Step?

  • By 3500BCE, relatively large, advanced preliterate societies had developed along the Indus, Huang He, Nile, and Tigris & Euphrates Rivers.
  • As societies grew in size and need, sedentary human beings were once again faced with pressures to adapt to changing natural and human environments.
slide20

What is Civilization?

What Does it Mean

to be Civilized?

slide21

Who is the MOST Civilized?

Who would you consider to be living in a more civilized environment?

A Nomadic Bedouin Family in

Saudi Arabia

A Suburban Family in

the United States

slide22

What is Civilization?

But how about…?

  • Slavery?
  • Large-scale warfare?
  • A permanent lower class?
  • Theocracy or Monarchism?
slide23

How Have Past Historians Used the Concept?

  • To distinguish accomplished, culturally advanced peoples from “barbarians” or “savages”.
  • To enforce ethnocentric ideals; some people were “inferior”.
  • Civilized = Your own culture
  • Inferior = Every other culture
slide24

Past Societies & "Others"

Who has been guilty of this view?

  • Westerners (Europeans & Americans), the Chinese, the Japanese, the Sumerians, the Babylonians, the Egyptians, the various Muslim Empires, the Aztecs, the Incas…
  • Hey, are you seeing a pattern?
slide25

Elements of civilization include:

1)Cities

Mohenjo Daro

It’s the

law

2) Central governments

And Law codes

Hammurabi’s

Law Code

Pharaohs

slide26

Elements of Civilization include:

1)Cities

2) Central governments

and law codes

3) Writing and

record keeping

Can you identify

the society

represented

by each of these two

writing samples?

4) Highly organized religions

slide27

Elements of Civilization include:

1)Cities

2) Central Governments and law codes

5) Specialized Jobs

3) Writing and record keeping

4) Highly organized religion

Full-time monk

6) Social Classes

Assyrian slaves

In Egypt

slide28

Elements of Civilization include:

1)Cities

2) Central governments and law codes

7) Complex Technologies

3) Writing and record keeping

4) Highly organized religion

Chariot

5) Specialized jobs

6) Social classes

Bronze Sword

slide29

So, have you been paying attention

or doing a bit of day dreaming?

Can you list some of the

elements of a civilization?

Let’s check!

Clue:

There were 7!

slide30

Good job if your list includes:

Check your answers below:

  • 1. Cities
  • 2. Central governments and law codes
  • 3. Writing and record-keeping
  • 4. Specialized jobs
  • Social classes
  • Complex technologies
  • Highly organized religions

Good job, huh?

slide31

Big Eras 4-9

1,000 years ago

Today

3,000 years ago

10,000 years ago

By 3,000 BCE, societies in Southwest Asia and Egypt were developing elements of complex societies.

Are we supposed

to be taking

notes on this?

Big Era 2

Big Era 3

slide32

By about 1000 BCE, there were several well-established civilizations in Afroeurasia.

There were also two new ones in the Americas.

At least two civilizations in Afroeurasia, the Minoan in the Mediterranean region and the Harappan in the Indus River valley had already come and gone.

slide33

Big Eras 4-9

1,000 years ago

Today

10,000 years ago

Now, looking back

let’s review the major changes.

Big Era 2

Big Era 3

slide34

Big Eras 4-9

1,000 years ago

Today

10,000 years ago

Domestication of Plants and Animals

Farming

Population

Intensification

Surplus Food

Specialization

Complex Society,

also known as

CIVILIZATION

Big Era 2

Big Era 3

slide35

That translates into:

Farmers

Herders

Cities

Central governments

Armies

Monumental buildings

Written language

Social hierarchies

Complex belief systems

In 10,000 BCE none of these existed in the world. By 1,000 BCE they all did.

slide36

Big

Eras

4-9

Art

Language

1k years ago

Today

200k yrs ago

Not only has life changed culturally and technologically, but also the rate of change has accelerated.

Letters and

envelopes

Writing

Irrigation

Pyramids

Wheel

Copper

smelting

Temple building

Walled cities

.

Dogs, sheep. goats, horses, wheat, rice, chiles, potatoes—all domesticated

Plow farming

Alphabet

Chariots

Pottery

360-degree circle

Sailing technology

Law Codes

Regular trade routes

Bow & arrow

Calendars

Big Era 1

BE3

Big Era 2

10k years ago

slide37

Come to think of it, things changed REALLY fast In the 20th century. I wonder what the rate of change is going to be like in the 21st century?

As we continue with the Classical Period keep your eye on the rate of change. Does it keep increasing? Level off? Slow down?

slide38

Well, that’s all for the Early Civilizations, but don’t go away.

Hang on to your notes and stay tuned for…

slide39

The Classical

Period

Coming SOON to a classroom near you.