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Styles of Architecture. What is Architecture?. Architecture is the art and profession of designing buildings. The word Architecture (Greek) has a historical meaning:

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what is architecture
What is Architecture?
  • Architecture is the art and profession of designing buildings.
  • The word Architecture(Greek) has a historical meaning:
    • May refer to a building style of a particular culture or to an artistic movement such as Greek, Gothic, and Renaissance architecture.
what is architecture1
What is Architecture?
  • Architecture has many artistic qualities but must also satisfy practical considerations.
  • Example: Office Buildings
    • A building cannot just be aesthetically pleasing.
    • Needs to accompany the comfort and efficiency levels for people in it.
    • If the building does not fulfill comfort, it fails architecturally.
architectural style
Architectural Style
  • Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics:
    • Form
    • Techniques
    • Materials
  • Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture that gives emphasis to characteristic features of design, leading to a terminology such as “Gothic” style.
neolithic architecture
Neolithic Architecture
  • Also known as “Stone-Age” architecture contains some of the oldest known structures made by mankind.
  • Distinguishable by Paleolithic and Mesolithic making and use of stone tools.
  • Neolithic cultures have been shown to have existed in southwest Asia as early as 8000 B.C. to 6000 B.C.
  • The peoples of the Americas and the Pacific region remained at the Neolithic level up until the time of European contact.
neolithic architecture1
Neolithic Architecture
  • Neolithic Architects were great builders who used mainly mud-brick to construct houses and villages.
  • Houses were plastered and painted with ancient scenes of humans and animals.
  • Many of the more famous Neolithic structures were remarkably made by enormous stones.
egyptian architecture
Egyptian Architecture
  • Due to lack of wood most Egyptian architecture was made with mud-brick and stone.
  • Minerals included sandstone, limestone, and granite, which were generally used for tombs and temples.
  • Most ancient Egyptian towns have been lost because they were situated in the cultivated and flooded area of the Nile Valley.
egyptian architecture1
Egyptian Architecture
  • Temples and tombs have survived:
    • Built on ground unaffected by the Nile flood
    • Constructed of stone.
  • Egyptian architecture is based mainly on its religious monuments such as Pyramids.
  • All monumental buildings are post and lintel constructions, with flat roofs constructed of huge stone blocks supported by the external walls and the closely spaced columns.
neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical Architecture
  • Neoclassical style produced by the neoclassical movement during the 18th century.
  • Neoclassical, or "new" classical, architecture describes buildings that are inspired by the classical architecture of ancient Greece and Rome.
neoclassical architecture1
Neoclassical Architecture
  • A Neoclassical building is likely to have some (but not necessarily all) of these features:
    • Symmetrical shape
    • Tall columns that rise the full height of the building
    • Triangular Pediment
    • Domed roof
  • Examples: U.S. Capitol Building, White House, Slave plantations
roman architecture
Roman Architecture
  • Adopted from Greek classical architecture.
  • Constructed new structural principles based on the development of the arch and a new building material, concrete.
  • First to utilize two forms of roof design, the arch and vault.
  • Vault is an arched roof or ceiling (dome).
  • Eliminated use for columns to support roofs.
  • Columns used mainly for sculptural decoration.
roman architecture1
Roman Architecture
  • Romans built more kinds of structures than any earlier civilization.
  • In addition to houses, temples, and palaces, Romans constructed aqueducts, public baths, shops, theaters, and outdoor arenas.
gothic architecture
Gothic Architecture
  • Mainly flourished in western Europe from the 1100’s to 1400’s.
  • New systems of construction allowed for architects to design churches with thinner walls and lighter piers.
  • Piers extended several stories high and into the roof area making individual columns like ribs on an open umbrella.
  • Ribbed vaults are most distinguishable characteristic of Gothic architecture.
gothic architecture1
Gothic Architecture
  • Other styles included pointed arches, stained-glass windows, flying buttresses.
  • Flying buttresses were brick or stone arched supports built along outside walls.
  • Emphasizes vertically and a skeletal stone structure.
  • Pointed arch was introduced for both visual and structural reasons. Channels weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle.
  • Gothic cathedrals could be highly decorated with statues and paintings.
renaissance architecture
Renaissance Architecture
  • Beginning between the early 15th and the early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe.
  • The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts
  • Orderly arrangement of arches, niches replaced the more complex proportional view of medieval buildings.
  • Renaissance buildings have a square, symmetrical, planned appearance.
renaissance architecture1
Renaissance Architecture
  • Facades (front of building) are symmetrical around their vertical axis.
  • The columns and windows show a progression towards the center.
  • Domestic buildings are often surmounted by a cornice.
  • Windows may be paired and set within a semi-circular arch.
  • Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings. They are not left open as in Medieval architecture. They are frequently painted or decorated.
modern architecture
Modern Architecture
  • Building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament.
  • Dominant architectural style, particularly for institutional and corporate building, for several decades in the 20th century.
  • Use materials such as iron, steel, concrete, and glass.
  • The most commonly used materials are glass for the facade, steel for exterior support.
  • Modern architecture seen in most skyscrapers.
modern architecture1
Modern Architecture
  • Modern architecture is usually characterized by:▪
    • a rejection of historical styles as a source of architectural form (historicism)
    • an adoption of the principle that the materials and functional requirements determine the result
    • an adoption of the machine aesthetic
    • a rejection of ornament
    • a simplification of form and elimination of "unnecessary detail"
art deco architecture
Art Deco Architecture
  • Popular design movement from 1920 until 1939.
  • Popular themes in art deco were trapezoidal, zigzagged, geometric, and jumbled shapes, which can be seen in many early pieces.
  • materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, lacquer, etc.
  • Bold use of stepped forms, and sweeping curves, symmetry and repetition,.
  • Art Deco style celebrates the Machine Age through explicit use of man-made materials (particularly glass and stainless steel)
post modern architecture
Post-Modern Architecture
  • Began as American style whose first examples are generally cited as being from the 1960s
  • Diverse aesthetics, styles collide.
  • Postmodernists feel buildings fail to meet the human need for comfort both for body and for the eye.
  • Most post-modernists works are small buildings such as houses and stores.
African Architecture
  • Chinese Architecture
  • Indian Architecture
  • Islamic Architecture
  • Japanese Architecture
  • Persian Architecture
  • Spanish Architecture
  • Canadian Architecture
  • Indonesian Architecture
  • Mesoamerican Architecture