What is Architecture? • Architecture is the art and profession of designing buildings. • The word Architecture(Greek) has a historical meaning: • May refer to a building style of a particular culture or to an artistic movement such as Greek, Gothic, and Renaissance architecture.
What is Architecture? • Architecture has many artistic qualities but must also satisfy practical considerations. • Example: Office Buildings • A building cannot just be aesthetically pleasing. • Needs to accompany the comfort and efficiency levels for people in it. • If the building does not fulfill comfort, it fails architecturally.
Architectural Style • Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics: • Form • Techniques • Materials • Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture that gives emphasis to characteristic features of design, leading to a terminology such as “Gothic” style.
Neolithic Architecture • Also known as “Stone-Age” architecture contains some of the oldest known structures made by mankind. • Distinguishable by Paleolithic and Mesolithic making and use of stone tools. • Neolithic cultures have been shown to have existed in southwest Asia as early as 8000 B.C. to 6000 B.C. • The peoples of the Americas and the Pacific region remained at the Neolithic level up until the time of European contact.
Neolithic Architecture • Neolithic Architects were great builders who used mainly mud-brick to construct houses and villages. • Houses were plastered and painted with ancient scenes of humans and animals. • Many of the more famous Neolithic structures were remarkably made by enormous stones.
Egyptian Architecture • Due to lack of wood most Egyptian architecture was made with mud-brick and stone. • Minerals included sandstone, limestone, and granite, which were generally used for tombs and temples. • Most ancient Egyptian towns have been lost because they were situated in the cultivated and flooded area of the Nile Valley.
Egyptian Architecture • Temples and tombs have survived: • Built on ground unaffected by the Nile flood • Constructed of stone. • Egyptian architecture is based mainly on its religious monuments such as Pyramids. • All monumental buildings are post and lintel constructions, with flat roofs constructed of huge stone blocks supported by the external walls and the closely spaced columns.
Neoclassical Architecture • Neoclassical style produced by the neoclassical movement during the 18th century. • Neoclassical, or "new" classical, architecture describes buildings that are inspired by the classical architecture of ancient Greece and Rome.
Neoclassical Architecture • A Neoclassical building is likely to have some (but not necessarily all) of these features: • Symmetrical shape • Tall columns that rise the full height of the building • Triangular Pediment • Domed roof • Examples: U.S. Capitol Building, White House, Slave plantations
Roman Architecture • Adopted from Greek classical architecture. • Constructed new structural principles based on the development of the arch and a new building material, concrete. • First to utilize two forms of roof design, the arch and vault. • Vault is an arched roof or ceiling (dome). • Eliminated use for columns to support roofs. • Columns used mainly for sculptural decoration.
Roman Architecture • Romans built more kinds of structures than any earlier civilization. • In addition to houses, temples, and palaces, Romans constructed aqueducts, public baths, shops, theaters, and outdoor arenas.
Gothic Architecture • Mainly flourished in western Europe from the 1100’s to 1400’s. • New systems of construction allowed for architects to design churches with thinner walls and lighter piers. • Piers extended several stories high and into the roof area making individual columns like ribs on an open umbrella. • Ribbed vaults are most distinguishable characteristic of Gothic architecture.
Gothic Architecture • Other styles included pointed arches, stained-glass windows, flying buttresses. • Flying buttresses were brick or stone arched supports built along outside walls. • Emphasizes vertically and a skeletal stone structure. • Pointed arch was introduced for both visual and structural reasons. Channels weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle. • Gothic cathedrals could be highly decorated with statues and paintings.
Renaissance Architecture • Beginning between the early 15th and the early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe. • The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts • Orderly arrangement of arches, niches replaced the more complex proportional view of medieval buildings. • Renaissance buildings have a square, symmetrical, planned appearance.
Renaissance Architecture • Facades (front of building) are symmetrical around their vertical axis. • The columns and windows show a progression towards the center. • Domestic buildings are often surmounted by a cornice. • Windows may be paired and set within a semi-circular arch. • Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings. They are not left open as in Medieval architecture. They are frequently painted or decorated.
Modern Architecture • Building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. • Dominant architectural style, particularly for institutional and corporate building, for several decades in the 20th century. • Use materials such as iron, steel, concrete, and glass. • The most commonly used materials are glass for the facade, steel for exterior support. • Modern architecture seen in most skyscrapers.
Modern Architecture • Modern architecture is usually characterized by:▪ • a rejection of historical styles as a source of architectural form (historicism) • an adoption of the principle that the materials and functional requirements determine the result • an adoption of the machine aesthetic • a rejection of ornament • a simplification of form and elimination of "unnecessary detail"
Art Deco Architecture • Popular design movement from 1920 until 1939. • Popular themes in art deco were trapezoidal, zigzagged, geometric, and jumbled shapes, which can be seen in many early pieces. • materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, lacquer, etc. • Bold use of stepped forms, and sweeping curves, symmetry and repetition,. • Art Deco style celebrates the Machine Age through explicit use of man-made materials (particularly glass and stainless steel)
Post-Modern Architecture • Began as American style whose first examples are generally cited as being from the 1960s • Diverse aesthetics, styles collide. • Postmodernists feel buildings fail to meet the human need for comfort both for body and for the eye. • Most post-modernists works are small buildings such as houses and stores. • BASICALLY, ANYTHING GOES!
African Architecture • Chinese Architecture • Indian Architecture • Islamic Architecture • Japanese Architecture • Persian Architecture • Spanish Architecture • Canadian Architecture • Indonesian Architecture • Mesoamerican Architecture