Styles of architecture
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Styles of Architecture. What is Architecture?. Architecture is the art and profession of designing buildings. The word Architecture (Greek) has a historical meaning:

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What is architecture
What is Architecture?

  • Architecture is the art and profession of designing buildings.

  • The word Architecture(Greek) has a historical meaning:

    • May refer to a building style of a particular culture or to an artistic movement such as Greek, Gothic, and Renaissance architecture.

What is architecture1
What is Architecture?

  • Architecture has many artistic qualities but must also satisfy practical considerations.

  • Example: Office Buildings

    • A building cannot just be aesthetically pleasing.

    • Needs to accompany the comfort and efficiency levels for people in it.

    • If the building does not fulfill comfort, it fails architecturally.

Architectural style
Architectural Style

  • Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics:

    • Form

    • Techniques

    • Materials

  • Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture that gives emphasis to characteristic features of design, leading to a terminology such as “Gothic” style.

Neolithic architecture
Neolithic Architecture

  • Also known as “Stone-Age” architecture contains some of the oldest known structures made by mankind.

  • Distinguishable by Paleolithic and Mesolithic making and use of stone tools.

  • Neolithic cultures have been shown to have existed in southwest Asia as early as 8000 B.C. to 6000 B.C.

  • The peoples of the Americas and the Pacific region remained at the Neolithic level up until the time of European contact.

Neolithic architecture1
Neolithic Architecture

  • Neolithic Architects were great builders who used mainly mud-brick to construct houses and villages.

  • Houses were plastered and painted with ancient scenes of humans and animals.

  • Many of the more famous Neolithic structures were remarkably made by enormous stones.

Egyptian architecture
Egyptian Architecture

  • Due to lack of wood most Egyptian architecture was made with mud-brick and stone.

  • Minerals included sandstone, limestone, and granite, which were generally used for tombs and temples.

  • Most ancient Egyptian towns have been lost because they were situated in the cultivated and flooded area of the Nile Valley.

Egyptian architecture1
Egyptian Architecture

  • Temples and tombs have survived:

    • Built on ground unaffected by the Nile flood

    • Constructed of stone.

  • Egyptian architecture is based mainly on its religious monuments such as Pyramids.

  • All monumental buildings are post and lintel constructions, with flat roofs constructed of huge stone blocks supported by the external walls and the closely spaced columns.

Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical Architecture

  • Neoclassical style produced by the neoclassical movement during the 18th century.

  • Neoclassical, or "new" classical, architecture describes buildings that are inspired by the classical architecture of ancient Greece and Rome.

Neoclassical architecture1
Neoclassical Architecture

  • A Neoclassical building is likely to have some (but not necessarily all) of these features:

    • Symmetrical shape

    • Tall columns that rise the full height of the building

    • Triangular Pediment

    • Domed roof

  • Examples: U.S. Capitol Building, White House, Slave plantations

Roman architecture
Roman Architecture

  • Adopted from Greek classical architecture.

  • Constructed new structural principles based on the development of the arch and a new building material, concrete.

  • First to utilize two forms of roof design, the arch and vault.

  • Vault is an arched roof or ceiling (dome).

  • Eliminated use for columns to support roofs.

  • Columns used mainly for sculptural decoration.

Roman architecture1
Roman Architecture

  • Romans built more kinds of structures than any earlier civilization.

  • In addition to houses, temples, and palaces, Romans constructed aqueducts, public baths, shops, theaters, and outdoor arenas.

Gothic architecture
Gothic Architecture

  • Mainly flourished in western Europe from the 1100’s to 1400’s.

  • New systems of construction allowed for architects to design churches with thinner walls and lighter piers.

  • Piers extended several stories high and into the roof area making individual columns like ribs on an open umbrella.

  • Ribbed vaults are most distinguishable characteristic of Gothic architecture.

Gothic architecture1
Gothic Architecture

  • Other styles included pointed arches, stained-glass windows, flying buttresses.

  • Flying buttresses were brick or stone arched supports built along outside walls.

  • Emphasizes vertically and a skeletal stone structure.

  • Pointed arch was introduced for both visual and structural reasons. Channels weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle.

  • Gothic cathedrals could be highly decorated with statues and paintings.

Renaissance architecture
Renaissance Architecture

  • Beginning between the early 15th and the early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe.

  • The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts

  • Orderly arrangement of arches, niches replaced the more complex proportional view of medieval buildings.

  • Renaissance buildings have a square, symmetrical, planned appearance.

Renaissance architecture1
Renaissance Architecture

  • Facades (front of building) are symmetrical around their vertical axis.

  • The columns and windows show a progression towards the center.

  • Domestic buildings are often surmounted by a cornice.

  • Windows may be paired and set within a semi-circular arch.

  • Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings. They are not left open as in Medieval architecture. They are frequently painted or decorated.

Modern architecture
Modern Architecture

  • Building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament.

  • Dominant architectural style, particularly for institutional and corporate building, for several decades in the 20th century.

  • Use materials such as iron, steel, concrete, and glass.

  • The most commonly used materials are glass for the facade, steel for exterior support.

  • Modern architecture seen in most skyscrapers.

Modern architecture1
Modern Architecture

  • Modern architecture is usually characterized by:▪

    • a rejection of historical styles as a source of architectural form (historicism)

    • an adoption of the principle that the materials and functional requirements determine the result

    • an adoption of the machine aesthetic

    • a rejection of ornament

    • a simplification of form and elimination of "unnecessary detail"

Art deco architecture
Art Deco Architecture

  • Popular design movement from 1920 until 1939.

  • Popular themes in art deco were trapezoidal, zigzagged, geometric, and jumbled shapes, which can be seen in many early pieces.

  • materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, lacquer, etc.

  • Bold use of stepped forms, and sweeping curves, symmetry and repetition,.

  • Art Deco style celebrates the Machine Age through explicit use of man-made materials (particularly glass and stainless steel)

Post modern architecture
Post-Modern Architecture

  • Began as American style whose first examples are generally cited as being from the 1960s

  • Diverse aesthetics, styles collide.

  • Postmodernists feel buildings fail to meet the human need for comfort both for body and for the eye.

  • Most post-modernists works are small buildings such as houses and stores.


  • African Architecture

  • Chinese Architecture

  • Indian Architecture

  • Islamic Architecture

  • Japanese Architecture

  • Persian Architecture

  • Spanish Architecture

  • Canadian Architecture

  • Indonesian Architecture

  • Mesoamerican Architecture