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OCN331 / MARE360. Goals: Qualitative & Quantitative Reading Materials—On-Line Lectures & Discussions Rec read chapters & bring PwrPt to class UH-H Visits Examinations/Grades. Whales Norwegian herring Japanese sardine Peruvian anchovy Can. N. Atlantic cod. Technology Capital Investment

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ocn331 mare360
OCN331 / MARE360
  • Goals: Qualitative & Quantitative
  • Reading Materials—On-Line
  • Lectures & Discussions
    • Rec read chapters & bring PwrPt to class
  • UH-H Visits
  • Examinations/Grades
hugo grotius mare liberum 1609
Whales

Norwegian herring

Japanese sardine

Peruvian anchovy

Can. N. Atlantic cod

Technology

Capital Investment

Fisheries Information

Politics

Social Issues

Tragedy of commons

Population

Hugo GrotiusMare Liberum1609
total global fisheries harvest 160mt
Year CAP AQ

2002 94.5 52

2003 91.8 55.2

2004 96 60

2005 95.5 63.3

2006 93.1 66.7

Capture Fisheries are constant at ~90-95Mt

Aquaculture is steadily increasing

Total Global Fisheries Harvest ~160Mt
why do we care
Why Do We Care?
  • Calories
  • High Quality Protein
      • Essential Amino Acids
  • Essential Fatty Acids (w3’s, w6’s)
seafood nutritional benefits
Seafood – Nutritional Benefits

High quality protein

High in omega-3 fatty acids

Low in saturated fat

Contributes to a healthy heart

Contributes to proper growth and development of children

Source of vitamins and minerals

9

seafood nutritional benefits1
Seafood – Nutritional Benefits

High quality protein

High in omega-3 fatty acids

Low in saturated fat

Contributes to a healthy heart

Contributes to proper growth and development of children

Source of vitamins and minerals

16

high quality protein
High Quality Protein

Protein needed for growth and maintenance

Seafood contains all 9 essential amino acids

Protein is highly digestible

Fish contain 16-27 grams of protein

17

fat facts
Fat Facts
  • Nutritional Importance
  • Saturated
  • Polyunsaturated fats (PUFA’s)
  • Trans Fats
  • HDL, LDL, Cholesterol
  • Health Issues
slide20

O

ω

9

6

3

1

HO

1

9

12

15

18

α

Alpha-Linolenic Acid

O

ω

6

1

HO

1

5

8

11

14

α

Arachidonic Acid

major sources of trans fats for u s adults
Cakes, cookies etc.

Animal Products

Margarine

Fried Potatoes

Chips etc.

Salad dressing

Cereals

Candy

40%

21%

17%

8%

5%

3%

1%

1%

Major Sources of Trans Fats for U.S. Adults
omega 3 fatty acids
Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Three types:

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

Seafood

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

Seafood

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)

Flaxseed, wheat germ, dark leafy greens

22

epa dha content of fish
Cod

Flounder

Mackerel

Pollock

Salmon, farmed

Shrimp

Trout

Tuna, bluefin

Tuna, canned

0.13

0.43

1.57

0.46

1.83

0.27

0.80

1.28

0.73

EPA & DHA Content of Fish
3 fatty acids heart health
JJ - CA – JA males

Fish Consumption

3oz/d vs ~2x/wk

w3 intake ~7X

Similar TFA levels

ω3: JJ = 2X higher

CAD: CA=JA >JJ

IMT incr. as w3 decr.

CAC incr. as w3 decr.

ω3: JJ = 2X higher !

ω3 Fatty Acids & Heart Health
proper growth and development of children
Proper Growth and Development of Children

Omega-3s and pregnancy

During last trimester of pregnancy

Rapid synthesis of brain tissue

Omega-3s and premature infants

Risk factor for preterm delivery and low birth weight

Omega-3s and the newborn

DHA is influenced by the mother’s diet

25

3 fatty acids fetus health
ω3 Fatty Acids & Fetus Health
  • “Fish is Brainfood”
  • EPA & DHA (from week 20)
  • Important for Infants’
    • Nerve, Visual, Immune system development
    • DHA Supplements Breast Milk & Formulas

Important for Infants’ Intellect

-IQ-fish consumption correlation

how the oceans make fish
How the Oceans Make Fish
  • Primary Production  Commercial Fish
  • 3 Types of Ocean Areas
    • Open Ocean
    • Coastal Areas
    • Upwelling Areas
slide28

Sea surface

herbivores

grazing

Winter mixed layer

grazing

phytoplankton

carnivores

Excretion, death, and sinking

dissolved nutrients

sinking

Permanent pycnocline

Upwelling and turbulent diffusion

regeneration

Nutrients in detritus

dissolved nutrients

slide36

Trophic level

7

Large tuna, sharks, billfish (0.51)

6

Small tuna, salmon, squid (3.39)

5

Chaetognaths, micronekton (22.6)

Mesopelagic vertical migrators (45.2)

113

226

4

Crustacean zooplankton (339)

3

Ciliates (1,695)

Flagellates (8,476)

2

Algal picoplankton and nanoplankton (42,380)

1

slide37

natural mortality

and fishing

large demersal fish (0.4)

16.3

8

2

16.3

invertebrate carnivores (61)

pelagic fish (32.6)

demersal fish (10)

102

29

306

crustacean zooplankton (408)

macrobenthos (49)

20

epifauna (4)

408

225

ciliates (240)

1,800

bacteria (322)

meiobenthos (19)

97

flagellates (1,200)

1,200

6,000

phytoplankton (9,000)

slide38

invertebrate carnivores (1.4)

natural mortality and fishing

pelagic fish (9.3)

6.8

2.3

crustacean zooplankton (9.1)

ciliates (2.6)

42.75

42.75

flagellates (12.9)

64.5

phytoplankton (150)

slide40

0.9

large tuna, sharks, billfish (0.7)

4.65

6.21

small tuna, salmon, squid (4.65)

31

31

chaetognaths, micronekton (31)

mesopelagic vertical migrators (63)

157

313

470

crustacean zooplankton (470)

DOC (32,776)

2,351

2,351

ciliates (2,351)

11,754

11,754

flagellates (11,754)

bacteria (16,388)

42,380

18,163

algal picoplankton and nanoplankton (60,543)

open ocean area
Deep

Low inputs

Mostly Regen. Nutrs.

Stable Temporally

Nutrient Limited

Small Phytoplankton

Long Food Chains

Low Comm.Fish Yield

Open Ocean Area
coastal areas
Shallow

Seasonal Inputs

Seasonal Variability

~50% New Nutrients

Larger Phytoplankton

Shorter Food Chains

Benthic Food Chains

Gadoid fishes

High Comm. Fish Yield

Coastal Areas
upwelling areas
Shallow

Seasonal Inputs

Seasonally Steady

Mostly New Nutrients

Larger Phytoplankton

Short Food Chains

Clupeid fish

High Comm. Fish Yield

Upwelling Areas