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User and Presentation Services Application Services Management Network Services Distributed Services Base Services Migrating to Windows 2000 in a Large Research Environment Rand Morimoto President, Inacom Oakland [email protected] User and Presentation Services Application Services

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migrating to windows 2000 in a large research environment
User and Presentation

Services

Application

Services

Management

Network

Services

Distributed

Services

Base

Services

Migrating to Windows 2000 in a Large Research Environment

Rand Morimoto

President, Inacom Oakland

[email protected]

slide2
User and Presentation

Services

Application

Services

Network

Services

Management

Distributed

Services

Base

Services

Migrating to Windows 2000 in a Large Research Environment

  • Background of Active Directory
  • DNS in Windows 2000
  • Migrating from WINS to DNS
  • Consolidating NT4 Domains
  • Conducting a Phased Migration
  • Next Generation MS-Exchange
slide3
About the Speaker
  • Microsoft Advisory Council Member (1995-present)
  • On the NT and Windows 2000 Development Team
  • Author:
    • “Deploying Microsoft Exchange v5”, 700-pages
    • “Tuning and Optimizing Windows NT”, 1000-pages
    • “Windows 2000: Design and Migration”
    • “Exchange v6: Design and Migration”
  • President / Inacom Oakland
  • Inacom Corporation
    • National / Int’l Services
    • Windows 2000 Services
slide4
Microsoft Directory Evolution

Now

Now

Coming

Microsoft Exchange Server directory

Windows 2000

Windows NT user directory

Windows NT user directory

  • Singleenterprise logon
  • Centralmanagement
  • Replicated/ partitioned
  • E-mail namesand rich attributes
  • X.500 naming
  • MAPI, LDAP support
  • Scalable to “millions”
  • Integrated DNS, X.500
  • Deep integration with OS security
  • More standard support: X.500 DAP/DSP, ADSI, OLE/dB, etc.
  • Scalable to millions
slide5
What is Active Directory?
  • Windows 2000 directory service
  • Active Directory has
    • A hierarchical, flexible namespace
    • Partitioning for scalability
    • Multi-master replication
    • Dynamic extensibility
    • Open and extensible directory synchronization interfaces
    • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) as the core protocol for interoperability
slide6
AD Terminology
  • Namespace
  • Name
  • Domain
  • Organizational Units (OUs)
  • Tree
  • Sites
  • Global Catalog
  • Schema
slide7
Differentiation

Administration Designators

vs

Replication Designators

slide8
Creating Administrative Structures
  • First I Create my “Domain” and Give it an Organization Name
  • Then I Create Organizational Units within this Domain to Distribute Administration
  • I then Create Users within the Organizational Units where they Belong
  • Finally I Group the Users so I can more Easily set Policies to the Group
slide9
Organizational Units

Users and Groups

Creating Administrative Structures

Domain

slide10
Enterprise is Made of Domains
  • Domains can be linked by trust
  • Domains can be related by name
  • Both X.500 and DNS naming

DC=MyCorp,DC=Com

whatever.edu

DC=Dev,DC=MyCorp,DC=Com

whatnot.whatever.edu

slide11
Active DirectoryGlobal namespace = DNS + LDAP Directories

com

edu

berkeley

inacom

microsoft

students

courses

PoliSci

Domain :inacom.com

BSmith

RJones

AArney

KBryant

Domain :

microsoft.com

Domain:

berkeley.edu

slide13
Planning Your DNS Strategy
  • Active Directory is integrated with Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Therefore, it is important to
    • Determine which DNS server to use
    • Determine your DNS root
slide14
DNS Server Options
  • Implement Microsoft DNS Exclusively
  • Implement Microsoft DNS as a Delegated Sub-domain
  • Use an Existing DNS Server
slide15
Implement Microsoft DNS Exclusively
  • Benefits
    • Tight integration with Active Directory
    • Supports the extended character set, Unicode
    • Not dependent on existing DNS Servers
    • Will co-exist with other DNS Servers
    • Supports multi-master replication
slide16
Implement Microsoft DNS as a Delegated Sub-domain
  • Benefits
    • Requires no upgrade of any existing DNS servers
    • Utilize existing DNS infrastructure
    • Minimizes dependency of Active Directory on existing DNS servers
slide17
Use a Non-Microsoft DNS Server
  • Benefits
    • Does not require replacing existing DNS servers
    • No DNS changes required
slide18
Existing DNS Server
  • To Support Active Directory, a DNS Server
    • Must support the SRV RR defined by RFC 2052
    • Should also support:
      • The Dynamic Update Protocol - RFC 2136
      • Incremental Zone Tranfers - RFC 1995
slide19
Multiple Domains/Trees
  • Sometimes it is necessary to have more than one domain
  • Multiple domains with a contiguous name space are referred to as trees

tailspintoys.com

europe.tailspintoys.com

marketing.europe.tailspintoys.com

slide20
Microsoft.Com

PBS.Microsoft.Com

NTDev.PBS.Microsoft.Com

Forest Definition

  • One or more Windows 2000 Trees
    • Do not form a contiguous namespace
    • Share a common schema, config., Global Catalog
    • All Trees in a Forest trust each other
    • Does not need a distinct name

Softimage.Com

Finance.Softimage.com

slide21
Active Directory

Safety:

  • Authenticode
  • Driver signing

SingleSign-on

Auth.:

  • Priv Key/Kerberos
  • Public Key/X.509
  • NT4

PrivateComm.

Protocol:

  • SSL
  • IPSEC
  • RPC/DCOM

SecureBiz Tx

  • PK Certificates
  • Kerberos keys

Base:

  • Crypto API
  • Encrypted F-S
  • More Auditing

SecureDesktop

Integrated Security

Scenarios

slide22
Goal of Windows 2000 for Enterprises:Reliability and Scalability

Network Load Balancing

Clustering

slide23
Goal of Windows 2000 for Enterprises:World Ready
  • Multilingual user interface
  • Same code runs anywhere
  • Simultaneous support of multiple languages
  • Single world-wide API
consider implementing nt4 workstation today
Consider Implementing NT4 Workstation Today
  • Higher level of security
    • ability to lock down w/s hardware config
    • ability to create and manage set processes
  • Ability to use global roaming profiles
  • Key to Intellimirror in Windows 2000
  • Consolidated DLL model in Windows 2000
slide26
Design, Implement, and Gain Support for System Policies
  • Globally manage individuals, groups of users, or all users the ability to:
    • change screen saver
    • change desktop background
    • add applications
    • purposely or accidentally delete applications
    • drop to DOS prompt
    • modify workstation configurations
consolidate domains
Consolidate Domains
  • Minimize resource domains
  • Develop structure that utilizes fewer domains
  • Create simplified trust model
  • Document enterprise hierarchy
    • server/host configurations
    • segment addresses
    • segment bandwidth
    • trust and authentication process
slide29
Fastlane Technologies: DM/Manager

Selectively move single or

multiple users from

any Source Domain...

...to any Target Domain!

slide30
Setting Rules / Policies for Migration

Flexible migration options...

conduct performance analysis
Conduct Performance Analysis
  • Evaluate Client to Server Bandwidth Demands
  • Evaluate Server to Server Bandwidth Utilization
  • Analyze Server System Utilization
  • Conduct WAN Bandwidth Analysis

Bluecurve “Dynameasure” recognized by Microsoft for capacity analysis and capacity planning (http://www.bluecurve.com)

slide32
Performance Analysis

Server CPU capacity is bottlenecked. All four server CPUs reach maximum thruput

implement dns in addition to and in an windows 2000 environment in place of wins
Implement DNS (in addition to (and in an Windows 2000 environment, in place of) WINS)
  • WINS needed for Netbios name resolution
  • DNS to be native in Windows 2000 complete TCP/IP environment
implement ldap for look up
Implement LDAP for Look-up

Domain Controller

Client

Microsoft

Management

Console

Legacy NT4 APIs

NT4 BDC

Replication

SAM

ADSI

NW3 NW4 NT4 NTDS

Windows 2000 M-M

Replication

Directory

Service

LDAP

wldap32.dll

Net

APIs

NCP

NCP

slide36
Create an Windows 2000 Deployment Team
  • Team Includes:
    • DNS Decision Makers (NT, UNIX, etc)
    • Hardware Implementers and Support Personnel
    • File/Print LAN/WAN Decision Makers
    • Firewall and Internet Security Decision Makers (Kerberos, X.509, etc)
    • Electronic Messaging Group
    • Desktop Support Group (Intellimirror, Windows Scripting, Sysclone, SMS)
slide37
User and Presentation

Services

Application

Services

Network

Services

Management

Distributed

Services

Base

Services

Migrating from NT4 to Windows 2000

  • Migrating Domain Controllers
  • Migrating Servers
  • Migrating Users
migration
Migration
  • Any Windows NT domain model can be migrated easily to the Active Directory
  • Mixed environments
    • Fully supported
    • Look and act like Windows NT 4.0 domains
    • Migration to domain tree simple
migration initial state
Migration (Initial State)

Initial state

Windows NT 4.x domain

“PDC”

BDC

BDC

migration step 1
Domain replica

Global catalog

Migration (Step 1)

Upgrade PDC to Windows 2000

“PDC”

BDC

BDC

BDC

migration step 2
Domain replica

Global catalog

Migration (Step 2)

Upgrade remaining Windows NT 4.x BDCs

DC - GC

DC

DC

DC

migration final state
Domain replica

Global catalog

Migration (Final State)

DC - GC

DC

DC

DC

“Native” domain

migration resource domains
Migrationresource domains
  • Can be upgraded in place and joined to tree
  • Can be replaced with OUs
    • Convert in place
    • Join to tree
    • Create OU in parent domain
    • Drag resource domain contents into OU
    • Delete (empty) resource domain
slide44
Server Role In Windows 2000

PDC BDC Replica

Windows NT 4.0 Only writeable Read-only -- copy copy

Windows 2000 Writeable copy. -- Writeable copy Appears as PDC to downlevel clients

Windows 2000 Only writeable Read-only Read-onlyMixed domain copy (Windows copy copy NT 4.0 or (Windows Windows 2000) NT 4.0)

slide45
Next Generation

Microsoft Exchange 2000

codename “Platinum”

slide48
Utilizes Multiple Storage Groups
  • More than 1 MDB Per Server
    • Smaller MDBs for easier backup/restore
    • Separate MDB for NNTP and Internal Public Folders
    • Distribute DBs across multiple Storage Area Network (SAN) devices
    • Distribute Administration of DB management on a single server
slide49
Migration to Exchange Platinum
  • Exchange Platinum Migration
    • Exchange server needs to be migrated, but not the whole organization
    • Migration tools included to migrate Exchange v5.5 to Platinum (users, org/site structure, mailboxes, public folders)
    • Active Directory Connector provides a link between non-Active Directory NOSs and Exchange Platinum (NT4, NDS, LDAP)
slide50
Preparing for Exchange Platinum
  • Upgrade to Exchange v5.5 (if you have not already done so)
  • Replace Site Connectors with SMTP or X.400 Connectors using InterOrg Directory Replication
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