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Lecture II. MNEs and the Evolving Global Business Environment (ch. 1). Definition of MNE. Substantial DFI (Direct Foreign Investment) Active management of offshore assets Can be in manufacturing or service Can be wholly owned or joint venture operations

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Lecture ii

Lecture II

MNEs and the Evolving Global Business Environment

(ch. 1)

Definition of mne
Definition of MNE

  • Substantial DFI (Direct Foreign Investment)

  • Active management of offshore assets

  • Can be in manufacturing or service

  • Can be wholly owned or joint venture operations

    * Differences between joint venture and strategic alliances

Beyond multinational
Beyond Multinational

  • The Globally Integrated EnterpriseSamuel J. Palmisano,

    Foreign Affairs, May/June 2006

    Summary:  A new corporate entity based on collaborative innovation, integrated production, and outsourcing to specialists is emerging in response to globalization and new technology. Such "globally integrated enterprises" will end up reshaping geopolitics, trade, and education.

Evolving global business environment
Evolving Global Business Environment

1. Free trade? (Managed trade?), removal of trade barriers, (GATT), WTO –Globalization (also see Ch2 –BG)

2. Changing attitudes of the developing countries, more favorable DFI policies

3. Regional economic integration –EU, NAFTA, ASEAN, APEC….

4. Technological advancement – impacts on strategy and structure

5. Competition for capital, borderless global operations – immense investments and new technologies force MNCs to look for global markets

6. Globally integrated supply chain, greater interdependence

Thoughts leading to globalization in the late 20 th century
Thoughts leading to Globalization in the late 20th century

  • Alvin Toffler [1990], “international firms are moving toward stateless corporations, no longer US, Japanese, or German; rather, they are non-national…”

  • Robert Kuttner [1990], “MNCs are…stateless, globalized corporations with operations, shareholders, and managers all over the world, largely indifferent to location except on the grounds of economic efficiency”

  • Robert Reich [1992], The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for the 21st Century capitalism.

  • Lester Thurow [1999], Building Wealth: The New rules for Individuals, companies and Nations.

  • F. Fukuyama [1989], “The End of History”, Foreign Affairs

  • T. Freidman’s “Golden Arch Theory of Conflict Prevention”– see Friedman’s book of The Lexus and The Olive Tree [1999]

  • (see lecture 1 for “changing thoughts in the 21st century)

Additional issues
Additional Issues

  • Safety-

    - “Managing the World Safe for Markets” HBR, 8/2003,

    A. Chua

    - World on Fire, A. Chua, 2003

  • Cross-Border, Cross- Cultural Business Ethics

    - “Emerging Threat:Human Rights Claims” E. Schrage, HBR,


    (Chapter 8 – see slide # 25)

  • http://blogs.iht.com/tribtalk/business/globalization/

Why companies expand internationally
Why Companies Expand Internationally?

  • Motivations (BG –Ch. 1)

    1. Traditional Motivations (1950-1980)

    2. Emerging Motivations (1980 - )

    3. Beyond Motivations

1 traditional motivations 1950 1980
1.Traditional Motivations (1950-1980)

  • Secure key supplies

  • Market seeking

  • Searching low-cost production fac

2 emerging motivations 1980
2. Emerging Motivations (1980 - )

  • Increasing scale economics

  • Escalating R&D investments

  • MNCs’ global scanning and learning capabilities

3 beyond motivations
3. Beyond Motivations

a. Location-specific Advantages

b. Strategic competencies

  • Strategic advantage – ownership-specific advantages such as patented technology, product differentiation, economies of scale, brand names, managerial skills, etc……

    c. Organizational capabilities

  • The firm’s organizational capabilities that could employ its strategic advantages better than others (see K. Ohmae’s article in BG’s book for “insiderization”)

Underlying theories of international expansion see other ib texts
Underlying theories of International Expansion( see other IB texts)

  • Theory of International Trade (theory of Comparative Advantage)

  • Theories of DFI

  • Theory of International Product Life Cycle

International product life cycle
International Product Life Cycle

R. Vernon [1966]

  • Stage 1- innovative country, new product, home market

  • Stage 2 - mature, standardized design, lower price, other industrialized countries joined production

  • Stage 3 - DFI in developing countries, export back to home and other markets

  • Stage 4 – technological diffusion, full globalization

Types of international business operations
Types of International Business Operations

  • Import/Export

  • Counter-trade

    • Barter, Counter-purchase, Buyback, Switch-trading

  • Turnkey projects

  • Licensing/Franchising

  • Joint Venture

    • minority ownership, 50-50 JV, majority ownership

  • Wholly owned Operation

Mne s international expansion strategies
MNE’s International Expansion Strategies

  • Licensing

  • Management Contract

  • Strategic Alliance

  • Joint Venture

  • Merger

  • Acquisition

  • Build from Scratch

Decision factors
Decision Factors:

  • Control

  • Restrictions from the Host Governments

  • Risk

  • Capital

  • Technology

  • Timing

Mncs evolving mentality
MNCs’ Evolving Mentality

  • Permultter [1968]

    • Ethnocentric

    • Polycentric

    • Geocentric

Mncs evolving mentality contd
MNCs’ Evolving Mentality (Contd..)

  • Bartlett & Ghoshal

    • International mentality

      • Ethnocentric, home country oriented

    • Multinational mentality

      • Polycentric, host country oriented

    • Global mentality

      • Centocentric

    • Transnational mentality

      • Geocentric

Geocentric mentality best practice
Geocentric mentality? Best Practice

Value-driven model:

V = ( Q + F + S ) / C

Bg s transnational companies
BG’s transnational companies

  • Efficiency

  • Flexibility

  • World wide learning

Ihrm example of mncs evolving mentality
IHRM example of MNCs’ evolving mentality

  • Expatriates

  • Host nationals

  • Ethnic expatriates

  • Cosmopolitan personnel

The future of the transnational an evolving global role
The Future ofthe Transnational –an Evolving Global role

Ch. 8 basically deals with MNE’s social responsibilities, which are further complicated by:

- operating in culturally different markets and subject to different legal constraints.

- growing pressure of sustaining competitiveness ( much of it comes from greater efficiency – the exploitive MNE)

- growing discontents with globalization

- rising nationalism (pressure to localize)

Managers in the new century
Managers in the new century

Green, Hassan,Immelt, Marks and Meiland, “In Search of Global Leaders” HBR, 8/2003pp. 38-45

Cultural Competency

Overseas assignment – prerequisite?