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Lecture 4: Operational Amplifiers

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  1. Lecture 4: Operational Amplifiers What can you do with infinite gain? Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  2. Some History Fairchild 0.60 Inches 1964: The First Linear IC The µA702 Op-Amp 12 Transistors Designer: Bob Widlar 1965: A Best-Seller The µA709 Op-Amp 14 Transistors Designer: Bob Widlar Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  3. 2 Minute QuizName_______ Section________ Date_________ • What is the voltage measured by the blue probe? Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  4. What can you do with infinite gain? • The goal of amplifier designers: huge gain. • What are the problems and opportunities associated with infinite gain? • First, we need a model. Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  5. Op-Amp Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  6. Ideal Op-Amp Model • Gain is infinite • Input resistance is infinite • Output resistance is zero • Input voltage is zero • Input current is zero Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  7. Ideal Op-Amp Continued • Bandwidth is also infinite. Thus, an ideal op-amp works the same at all frequencies. Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  8. Feedback • Like most engineered systems, the op-amp uses feedback to realize its potential value. • Feedback comes in two forms • Positive Feedback • Negative Feedback • It seems like positive feedback might be best, but negative feedback makes the op-amp work Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  9. Feedback Examples From a Zoology Course • You just ate a Krispy Kreme donut and your blood glucose levels are on the rise. In response to this rise, the pancreas is releasing insulin into the blood stream stimulating storage of glucose. As a result, blood glucose levels begin to drop. Is this an example of positive or negative feedback? • A woman is in labor, pressure receptors in the birth canal send messages to her brain that result in increased contraction of the uterus and increased pressure in the birth canal. Is this positive or negative feedback? Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  10. Feedback: Valve Example • As the water nears the specified level, the valve is closed. • Negative feedback is most commonly used to control systems. Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  11. Golden Rules for Op-Amps • The output attempts to do whatever is necessary to make the voltage difference between the two inputs zero. (Negative Feedback is Required) • The inputs draw no current. Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  12. Positive and Negative Feedback • Connecting the output to the positive input is positive feedback • Connecting the output to the negative input is negative feedback Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  13. Op-Amp Configurations • Buffer or Voltage Follower • No voltage difference between the output and the input • Draws no current, so it puts no load on the source • Used to isolate sources from loads Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  14. Op-Amp Configurations V2 • Non-Inverting Amplifier • No voltage difference between inputs • Resistors act like voltage divider Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  15. Op-Amp Configurations • Non-Inverting Amplifier Continued • Combining the two equations for the voltages gives us the relationship between input and output Note that this formula uses different variables in the lab write up Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  16. Op-Amp Configurations V2 • Inverting Op-Amp • Current through R1 equals the current through Rf • No current in the inputs • The voltage at both inputs is zero Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  17. Op-Amp Configurations • Inverting Op-Amp Continued • Current through R1 • Current through Rf Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  18. 2 Minute QuizName______ Section_______ Date________ • What is the voltage measured by the green probe? Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  19. Op-Amp Configurations • Why the minus sign for the current through Rf? • The convention for Ohm’s Law is that the current flows from the high voltage to the low voltage for a resistor • Here the current flows from the low voltage (ground) to the high voltage (VO) Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  20. Op-Amp Configurations • Inverting Op-Amp Continued • The current through R1 must equal the current through R2 since there is no current in the inputs. • Combining the two equations for the currents Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  21. Op-Amp Configurations • Inverting Summing Amplifier • Each input resistor contributes to the current. Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  22. Op-Amps: Practical Issues • Op-Amps require power • 741 requires plus and minus 15V • Others may require only positive or both positive and negative voltages • Output voltage is limited to • Usually filter capacitors are connected to power to reduce noise Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  23. Op-Amps: Practical Issues • We use real op-amps: 741 • Note the pin connections for the IC Note: Literally a Black Box Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  24. Op-Amps: Practical Issues • Note the pins (not all are used) • Extra resistor corrects offset problem Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  25. ICs come in many types of packages. We will use the 8-pin, dual-in-line or DIP package • Note the other offset nulling circuit Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  26. Where Will You See This Information Next? • Op-amps: Many Courses Including • ECSE-2010 Electric Circuits • ECSE-2050 Analog Electronics • Feedback and Control • ENGR-2350 Embedded Control • ECSE-4440 Control Systems Engineering • ECSE-496x Control Systems Design Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  27. Embedded Control • Studio Classroom Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  28. http://litec.rpi.edu Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  29. Feedback and Control Example • The inverted pendulum is like balancing a baseball bat Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  30. Inverted Pendulum Experiment http://www.univ-valenciennes.fr/LAMIH/pendule/english/index.html Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  31. Magnetic Levitation • Trains can magnetically fly over a roadbed with position sustained by some kind of control system • Our next lab is on maglev Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  32. More Magnetic Levitation Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  33. 2 Minute QuizName_______ Section________ Date__________ • What is the voltage measured by the red probe? Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  34. Answers • The green probe: 10V • The red probe: 1V • The blue probe: 0V • Voltage Divider: Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor

  35. Engineering Ethics • Electrical and Computer Engineers do not usually face immediate ethical issues involving public health and safety • System control is one of many exceptions • From the IEEE Code of Ethics • We agree to accept responsibility in making engineering decisions consistent with the safety, health and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment; • http://www.iit.edu/departments/csep/eac/post_workshop.html Introduction to Engineering Electronics STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor