Lead Awareness University of Maryland Department of Environmental Safety Martin Wizorek, Manager – Occupational Safety and Health
What is Lead? • Heavy metal at room temperature • Bluish-gray • Low melting point • Pliable • Corrosion resistant • Can form lead compounds
In what products was lead commonly used? • Gasoline (phase-out began 1980) • Smelting • Lead batteries (25-78% of all lead used in U.S.) • Paints and coatings • Solder • Auto manufacturing • Printing
History • Late 1950’s – Paint manufacturers started to voluntarily reduced lead content of most paint for residential use. • 1978 – CPSC limits paint for residential use to 600 ppm (essentially, lead-free paint). • However, lead paint for non-residential use is still sold.
So where is lead paint found? • Homes built before 1950 • Everywhere – inside and outside (all coatings) • Homes built between 1950-1960 • Probably outside, may be inside • Trims, doors, windows, kitchens, bathrooms, etc. • Homes built between 1960-1978 • May be outside, less likely inside ***Before 1978 we assume lead!!!
What is “lead paint” • EPA/HUD/DHS Definition 1.0 mg/cm2 5000 ppm 0.5% • Maryland Definition 0.7 mg/cm2 • OSHA and MOSH Definition Any detectable amount
Buildings on Campus & Year Built Altogether, there are 169 numbered buildings on campus that were constructed prior to 1979.
Examples of the presence of lead-based paint at the University of Maryland
Francis Scott Key HallCream colored door trim(white door and wall are non-LBP)
Cole Field HouseExterior door trim (note deterioration) Notice the deterioration
Ways in which lead enters the body • Inhalation - Breathing lead fumes or dust. This is the most common route of entry in the workplace. • Ingestion - Swallowing lead dust via food, cigarettes etc.
Health Effects • Lead which is inhaled or ingested gets into the bloodstream. • Can be circulated throughout your body.
Health Effects • Some is excreted while some remains in organs and body tissues. • If exposure continues, the amount stored in your body will increase if you are absorbing more lead than your body is excreting.
Chronic Health Effects During prolonged chronic exposure, many body systems can be affected by lead, including: • Brain • Kidneys • Muscles • Bones • Blood forming organs • Reproductive systems
Chronic Health Effects(Resulting from High Lead Exposure and Absorption Into Body) • Severe damage to blood forming, nervous, urinary and reproductive systems • Loss of appetite, metallic taste in the mouth, anxiety, constipation, nausea, pallor, excessive tiredness, weakness, insomnia, headache, nervous irritability, muscle and joint pain or soreness, fine tremors, numbness, dizziness, hyperactivity and colic (with severe abdominal pain, lead line • Person is easily irritated and may become aggressive
Chronic Health Effects • Reproductive systems of both men and women may be affected • Decreased sex drive, impotence and sterility in men • Miscarriage and stillbirth in women whose husbands were exposed to lead or where they were exposed
Chronic Health Effects • Children born of parents who were exposed to excessive lead are more likely to have birth defects, mental retardation, behavioral disorders or die during the first year of childhood
Other Chronic Health Effects Hypertension • Lead exposure has been consistently associated with increases in blood pressure in studies conducted in both workers and the general population. • Blood lead levels of less than 20 μg/dL sometimes are associated with increases in blood pressure.
Other Chronic Health Effects Decreased kidney function • Low to moderate levels of lead exposure also have been associated with adverse changes in kidney function. • This association may be even worse in people who have other risk factors for kidney disease, such as hypertension or diabetes.
Acute Health Effects • Acute health effects only appear when worker is exposed to extremely high amounts of lead • Acute encephalopathy (disorder or disease of the brain) may develop quickly followed by seizures, coma and death from cardio-respiratory arrest • Again, highly unusual, but not impossible
"The Dangles" was an occupational hazard for printers THIS IS FROM VERY HIGH LEAD EXPOSURE!!!
Lead Identification • Department personnel should contact the Department of Environmental Safety (DES) prior to the disturbance of painted surfaces unless it is known with certainty, either through documentation or testing, that the surface does not contain lead
Lead Identification • DES will use direct reading instrument (XRF) to determine if lead is present in any of the surfaces to be modified or demolished.
How is lead exposure measured? • PEL: You are allowed to be exposed up to the Permissible Exposure Limit established by OSHA of 50 ug/m3 (micrograms per cubic meter of air) based on an 8-hour time weighted average. • Action Level: OSHA established an Action Level of 30 μg/m3 based on an 8 hour time weighted average.
The All-ImportantAction Level • If lead is present in any quantity in your workplace, OSHA has directed that an “initial determination” must be made by taking air samples while workers are performing their job that may result in airborne lead exposure • The AL for lead is 30 µg/m3. • If the results are below the AL, no further monitoring is necessary for that job, and the workers are not considered to be significantly lead exposed.
Air Sample Results(As performed by DES for Various Occupations)
Conclusions • Based on the results, typical maintenance tasks would not result in exposures above the AL. • Some activities, such as power sanding on painted surfaces, resulted in short-term exposures. However, these short-term exposures were still below the PEL.
Awareness of Lead Standard • OSHA Regulations state: Where there is a potential exposure to airborne lead at any level, the employee must be informed of the contents of OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1025, Appendix A & B. • Because you may be exposed to lead, even in small quantities, the next three slides describe the contents of Appendix A & B
Appendix A • Substance Identification • Health Hazard Data
Appendix B • Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) • Exposure Monitoring • Methods of Compliance • Respiratory Protection • Personal protective Equipment • Housekeeping • Hygiene Facilities
Appendix B • Medical Surveillance • Medical Removal • Training and Information • Signs • Record keeping
Lead Medical Surveillance • OSHA standards require biological monitoring and medical surveillance for all employees exposed to levels of lead above the action level of 30 µg/m3 for more than 30 days per year • The blood lead level of all employees who are exposed to lead above the action level is to be determined at least every six months. • The frequency is increased to every two months for employees whose last blood lead level was above 40 µg/100 g
Health Protection/Medical Surveillance • Obtain a Blood Lead Level (BLL) • Maintain blood lead levels to below 40 micrograms per 100 grams of whole blood (40 µg/100g). • Recommend a level below 30 µg/100g for workers who intend to have children • Blood lead measurements show the amount of lead circulating, but not the amount stored in tissue.
Lead Medical Examination • A medical examination is given to lead workers: • Annually • Immediately, if an employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead poisoning • Whenever an employee desires medical advice regarding lead exposure and the ability to procreate a healthy child • Immediately if the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during a respirator fitting test or during respirator use
Lead Poisoning Prevention(For the Non-Lead Worker) • Minimizing exposure to lead is the key to minimizing health effects