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Introducing the !Kung San Dobe Ju/’hoansi. People of Dobe Language Environmental Adaptations Settlement. Ethnography by Richard Lee. 1963 as part of his dissertation research Learn about foragers as most “basic” of humans. Common “core” of features.

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introducing the kung san dobe ju hoansi

Introducing the !Kung SanDobe Ju/’hoansi

People of Dobe

Language

Environmental Adaptations

Settlement

ethnography by richard lee
Ethnography by Richard Lee
  • 1963 as part of his dissertation research
  • Learn about foragers as most “basic” of humans.
  • Common “core” of features.
  • Learn customs and culture in evolutionary context.
  • Also address questions of ethnoarchaeology.
people of dobe
People of Dobe
  • Hottentots (Khoi)
    • Herders of goats and cattle
  • San “Bushmen”
    • Term bushmen racist and sexist
  • Dutch-16th century
  • European settlemen
    • Genocidal warfare against San
    • Remaining pushed to marginal zones of the Kalahari desert.
    • ~ 112,000 San today
people of dobe5
“Yellow” San

Indigenous of South Africa

Click Language

Hunter-gatherers, farmers, herders and wage labor.

Short, lighter skin, deep chested, delicate facial features.

“Black” San

Genetically similar to Bantu

Mixed herding, farming, wage labor and some foraging.

Taller, darker skin, stronger facial features.

People of Dobe
studies of san
Studies of San
  • Lawrence and Lorna Marshall
    • Nyae Nyae 1951
  • Silberbauer, Tanaka, Cashdan, Kent
    • /Gwi
  • Bleek, Guenther, Barnard
    • Nharo
  • Lee, Devore (Kalahari Research Group)
    • Ju/’hoansi
prehistory of san
Prehistory of San
  • People living in that area of South Africa as early as 50 thousand years ago (and probably earlier).
  • Debate: San are actually pastoralists who fled Bantu overlords and became foragers.
    • Archaeological evidence suggests continuity between present day San and prehistoric people.
    • No historic documentation of this.
san language
San Language
  • Unusual sounds called clicks.
  • / = dental click (as in “tsk, tsk”)
  • ≠ = alveolar click (tongue on sides of teeth)
  • ! = alveopalatal click (tongue on roof of mouth)
  • // = lateral click (as in urging on a horse)
  • http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0102/online_extra.html
kinship
Kinship
  • Definition-a culturally defined relationship established on the basis of blood ties or marriage.
  • Consanguineal Kin-those people related by blood (blood relations).
    • related to concept of parentage.
    • blood is not such a great term but it gets the idea across.
  • Affinal-related by marriage.
environmental adaptations
Environmental Adaptations
  • Dobe area
    • 3000 square miles
  • Kalahari Desert
    • 1000-2000 meters above sea level
  • Aha Hills
    • 2100 meters above sea level
habitats
Habitats
  • Ju define 4 habitats:
  • Dunes
    • Fixed by Mongongo tree vegetation.
  • Flats
    • Plains between dunes and melapo
  • Melapo
    • Dry river beds, smaller, acacia trees.
  • Hardpan
    • Bare rock/sand, baobab tree.
water
Water
  • Permanent waterholes (Dobe)
  • Seasonal (6 months a year-October to March)
  • Interior of Mongongo tree
  • Water bearing roots
climate
Climate
  • Hottest-October to February (86-104 F)
  • Coolest-June and July (75-80 F)
  • San Recognize Five seasons
    • !Huma (Spring Rains) Oct-Nov
    • Bara (Summer Rains) Dec-March
    • Tobe (Autumn) April-May
    • !Gum (Winter) May-August
    • !Gaa (Spring Dry) Aug-October
rainfall
Rainfall
  • Highly Variable
    • 1963-64 9.4”
    • 1967-1968 23.5”
    • 1968-1969 14.7”
  • Droughts
    • 2 years out of every five
    • Severe-One year out of every four
fauna
Fauna
  • 50 Mammal Species
    • Kudu, Wildebeest, Gemsbok, Eland, Roan Antelope, Giraffe and Hartebeest most important.
  • 90 Bird Species
    • Ostrich (eggs), guinea fowl, sandgrouse, quail, dove, ducks most important
  • 25 Reptile/Amphibian Species
  • Insects
    • Chysomelid Beetle-poison for arrows
    • Honey
hunting
Hunting
  • Meat contributes 30 percent of the calories.
  • Social-distribution and feasting when a large animal is killed.
  • Tools
    • Bow and arrow, spear, knife, springhare hook, and rope snares.
  • Techniques
    • Mobile-poisoned arrows, with dogs, underground after burrowing animals, snaring.
flora
Flora
  • Mongogo (nuts)
  • Baobab
  • Marula (nuts)
  • Edible gum (sap)
  • Roots and Bulbs
  • Melons (Saba “Bitter”)
  • Bean
settlement villages
Settlement-Villages
  • Dry Season Villages
    • May-Oct, 8-15 huts, 20-50 people
    • Near Permanent Water
    • Well constructed huts
    • Circular design
  • Rainy Season Villages
    • Oct-March, 3-20 huts, 3 weeks to 3 months
    • Hastily constructed huts, thickly thatched.
    • Up to 6 sites in one rainy season
    • Circular design
village layout
Village Layout
  • Good, shade trees
  • 0-Plaza
  • 1-Huts & Fires
  • 2-Ash dumps
  • 3-Cooking & Butchering
  • 4-Empty
  • 5-Defecation Zone
settlement camps
Settlement-Camps
  • Spring and Fall Camps
    • No huts, 2-3 weeks
  • Overnight Stops
    • Fire built
  • Cattle Post Camps
    • Solid huts near cattle/goat herder villages
    • 1-20 huts
    • Crescent shaped pattern