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How to Be a Puppet Master. Persuasion. Effort to change attitudes through various kinds of messages. Social Influence. Attempts to change behavior (and maybe attitudes) . X. Outcomes of Influence Attempts. Commitment. Compliance. Resistance. Attitudes. Chapters 7 and 8.

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how to be a puppet master
How to Be a Puppet Master

Persuasion

Effort to change attitudes through various kinds of messages

Social

Influence

Attempts to change behavior (and maybe attitudes)

X

outcomes of influence attempts
Outcomes of Influence Attempts

Commitment

Compliance

Resistance

attitudes

Attitudes

Chapters 7 and 8

why study attitudes
Why Study Attitudes?

Attitudes are important because they:

  • strongly influence our social thought
    • help to organize and evaluate stimuli (e.g., categorizing stimuli as positive or negative)
  • presumably have a strong affect on behavior
    • help to predict people’s behavior in wide range of contexts (e.g., voting, interpersonal relations)
the basics of attitudes
The Basics of Attitudes

Attitude - evaluation of an object in a positive or negative fashion that includes the 3 elements of affect, cognitions, and behavior

1. The 3 Components of Attitudes

affect, cognition, and behavior

2. Measuring Attitudes

likert scale - used to assess people’s attitudes that includes a set of possible answers and that has anchors on each extreme

attitude structure
Attitude Structure

Gun Control

Affect: “Guns make me sick!”

Affect

Behavior: “I vote for gun control

whenever possible.”

Cognition

Cognition: “Guns in the house

increase the likelihood of children

accidentally shooting themselves.”

Behavior

attitude formation
Attitude Formation
  • social learning- acquire attitudes from others
    • classical conditioning- learning based on association
      • subliminal conditioning- without awareness
    • instrumental conditioning- learn to hold the “right” views
    • observational learning- learning by observing actions of others and exposure to mass media
attitude formation con t
Attitude Formation (con’t)
  • social comparison- compare ourselves to others to determine if our view of reality is correct
    • attitudes are shaped by social information from others we like or respect
  • genetic factors- inherited general dispositions (e.g., see world in a positive or negative light)
    • highly heritable attitudes and gut-level preferences (music) are especially influenced
summary
Summary
  • Attitudes are evaluations of any aspect of our social world
  • Attitudes are often learned
  • Attitudes are also formed through social comparison
  • New research suggests attitudes are influenced by genetic factors
the functions of attitudes
The Functions of Attitudes

1. The Utilitarian Function of Attitudes

serves to alert us to rewarding objects and situations we should approach, and costly or punishing objects or situations we should avoid

2. The Ego-Defensive Function of Attitudes

enables us to maintain cherished beliefs about ourselves by protecting us from awareness of our negative attributes and impulses or from facts that contradict our cherished beliefs

the functions of attitudes11
The Functions of Attitudes

Terror Management Theory - says that to ward off the anxiety we feel when contemplating our own demise, we cling to cultural worldviews and conventional values out of a belief that by doing so, part of us will survive death

3. The Value-Expressive Function of Attitudes

4. The Knowledge Function of Attitudes

attitude behavior link
Attitude-Behavior Link
  • Attitudes do not always predict behavior
    • LaPiere (1934) found that virtually all businesses served Chinese couple courteously, yet most owners held negative attitudes
    • Sun-worshippers know the dangers of exposure to the sun, yet they tan anyway
      • “looking good” attitude takes precedence over attitudes toward personal health

Forward

lapiere study
LaPiere Study

Would you serve Chinese people?

Back

moderators of a b link
Moderators of A-B Link
  • Aspects of the situation
    • situational constraints (e.g., sparing one’s feelings) may prevent us from expressing our true attitudes
    • often we choose situations where we can engage in behaviors consistent with our attitudes
  • Aspects of attitudes
    • origins- how attitudes were formed
    • strength- intensity, importance, accessibility
    • specificity- general vs. specific
how do attitudes influence behavior
How Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?
  • Theory of planned behavior (considered)
    • intentions are a function of attitudes toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
  • Attitude-to behavior process model (impulsive)
    • attitudes spontaneously shape our behavior of situation
  • Prototype/willingness model (risky)
    • behavior is a function of attitudes toward behavior, subjective norms, behavior intentions, willingness to engage in specific form of behavior, and prototypes
theory of planned behavior
Theory of Planned Behavior

Attitudes

Subjective

Norms

Behavioral

Intentions

Behavior

Perceived

Behavioral

Control

Back

attitude to behavior process model

Perception of

Event

Social

Norms

Attitude to Behavior Process Model

Event

Attitude

Behavior

Back

prototype willingness model

Subjective

Norms

Behavioral

Intentions

Previous

Behavior

Attitude

Behavior

Prototype

Behavioral

Willingness

Prototype/Willingness Model
summary21
Summary
  • Several factors moderate the link between attitudes and behaviors.
  • Situational constraints may prevent us from expressing our attitudes.
  • We often engage in activities that allow us to express our attitudes.
  • Attitude formation, attitude strength, and attitude specificity also moderate the A-B link.
  • Attitudes influence behavior through several mechanisms.