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Food microbiology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Food microbiology. Preparing food Preserving food When microbes go wrong. The fine line between fermenting and spoiling. What does the microbe grow on? Which microbe grows on it (what is its end product)?. Which microbes grow in food, and why?. Intrinsic factors Nutrient content

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food microbiology

Food microbiology

Preparing food

Preserving food

When microbes go wrong

the fine line between fermenting and spoiling
The fine line between fermenting and spoiling
  • What does the microbe grow on?
  • Which microbe grows on it (what is its end product)?
which microbes grow in food and why
Which microbes grow in food, and why?
  • Intrinsic factors
    • Nutrient content
    • Water content (osmotolerance)
    • pH (acid conditions may inhibit growth of harmful microbes)
  • Extrinsic factors
    • Temperature
    • Oxygen availability
slide5
Fermented milk products
    • Lactic acid bacteria ferment the lactose in milk
    • Acid environment inhibits growth of other microbes
    • Starter cultures are often used
yeast produce different fermentation products
Yeast produce different fermentation products
  • Ethanol and carbon dioxide
  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Bread
distinguishing features of alcoholic fermentation
Distinguishing features of alcoholic fermentation
  • What is fermented?
    • Fruit (wine)
    • Rice (sake)
    • Grains (beer, spirits)
  • How is the product finished?
    • Spirits are distilled
    • Beer and wine are filtered
fermentation has enhanced and preserved food for centuries
Fermentation has enhanced and preserved food for centuries
  • By bacteria, yeasts and molds
  • In absence of oxygen
  • Acids and alcohols are produced
food spoilage
Food spoilage
  • End products are obnoxious
  • Sometimes harmful
  • Bacteria tend to spoil moist foods; fungi dry or acidic foods
diseases transmitted in food
Diseases transmitted in food
  • Toxins
    • Staph toxin is heat-stable; botulism toxin is not
  • Invasive bacteria
    • Cook thoroughly
    • Avoid cross-contamination
food preserevation
Food preserevation
  • Pre-industrial
    • Drying
    • Pickling (salting)
    • Canning
  • Mass production
    • Pastuerization
    • Preservatives
    • Freezing (freeze-drying)
    • Irradiation
summary
Summary
  • Microbes eat the same foods we do!
  • Controlled microbial growth can enhance our diets and help preserve foods
  • Metabolism of some microbes leads to spoilage of foods
  • Some microbes in food are pathogens
  • Minimizing microbial contamination of food is a priority