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Painters: more than 800 recognized in the country, most are self-taught, working full-time, and using a variety of styles

Primitive art – encouraged by DeWitt Peters an artist & teacher from the U.S. Philome Obin founding father of this movement, Hector Hyppolite a poor voodoo priest was the greatest painter of the movement & found by DeWitt

Mural Painting – started in 1949 by Selden Rodman an American poet & art critic: church murals – Wilson Bigaud’s Miracle at Cana in the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity

Literature: comes from the anger directed against the white masters of the colonial past

Jacques Roumain – poet, novelist, ethnologist: Jean Price-Mars innovator who supported the concept of Negritude or pride in being black and in the African heritage: Leon Laleau – poetry & prose: Louis Diaquoi – journalist & poet fostered the literary group Les Griots whose material comes from voodoo

Women: Virgine Sampeur, Ida Faubert, Lucie Archin-Lay, Marie Chauvet

Sculpture: Odilon Duperier – carved masks and figures: Jasmin Joseph- terracotta sculptures: Georges Liataud & Murat Vriere – sheet iron sculpture: Roger Francois – dried roots



Do not have a uniform Dominican style

Costumbrismo – Realism / Dominican customs and themes

Guillo Perez, Gilberto Hernandez Ortega, Ada Balcacer, Abelardo Urdaneta


Bartolome de Las Casas – colonial period Historia de Las Indias

Romantic Period influenced by France through the 19th century – Realism – Modernism – Postumismo – Poesia de sopresa

Manuel de Jesus Galvan “nobel savage” idealized in Enriquillo Salome Urena de Heriquez – patriotic poetry

Gaston Fernando Deligne – modernist Domingo Moreno Jimenes – Postumismo Hector Inchaustegui Cabral – Poesia de sopresa Juan Bosch – former president Julia Alvarez – modern life of “Dom-Yorks”



Highly regarded. The National Ballet Company ranks as one of the world’s most talented. Also: Camaguey Ballet and Cuban National Dance Alicia Alonso – most prominent ballet personality

Poster Art 1965 – 1975 Golden Age of the Poster:

Challenging political ideas demonstrated in posters; combined pop art, minimalism, and surrealism; mix of Afro-American, Indo-American, Euro-American Che Guevara publicly rejected the Soviet Union’s stifling of art, many posters are painted of him

Painting: Wilfredo Lam – post-World War II surrealist, Afro-Cuban themes La Jungle Manuel Mendive – Afro-Cuban themes Untitled Raul Martinez – introduced pop art The Island

Literature: Government encouraged Cubans to read books with revolutionary or equality themes Cirilo Villaverde – Cecilia Valdes Others: Alejo Carpentier, Jose Lezama Lima, Luis Rogelio – political thrillers



Independence Movement 1950’s-60’s

Philip Lewis – formed the group Soul to Art

There have not been many formal means to develop and support artists


Was written in Standard English now a movement to write in the standard language of creole English

Zee Edgell – Beka Lamb, In Times Like These, The Festival of SanJoaquin



Eduardo Kingman & Camilio Egas, have indigenous backgrounds and have used indigenous subjects to portray suffering and oppression.

Oswaldo Guayasamin – most controversial and best known, his works portray social or political protest but often with rather ugly depictions of indigenous people. One portion of his mural in the Congress building in Quito shows a skeleton wearing a helmet that says the letters CIA, meaning the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. This

created a huge argument. The U. AS. Ambassador called for the letters to be painted out, and there was a discussion about cutting aid to Ecuador, but in the end the painting remained.


Literature: Mario Vargas Llosa – novelist born in 1936 is one of the most famous Peruvians of recent times. He studied at San Marcos Univesity in Lima. His themes are based on his life in Peru. Conversation in the Cathedral is his most well known work. In 1990 he tried to become elected President of Peru. After being defeated he left to be in Spain.

Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa is so many things he is best described as a modern-day Renaissance man. Politician, playwright, art, film and literature critic and essayist, he is perhaps best known as one of a handful of novelists that have brought contemporary Latin American literature to the forefront internationally.


Sculptor: Jose Belloni – enormous images of work animals

Jose Luis Zorilla de San Martin – images of local things & people

Painters 19th century: Pedro Figari – also vice-president in 1904; painted landscapes and everyday life

Joaquin Torres Garcia – constructivism – abstract art that used materials such as glass and metal

Painters contemporary: Carlos Paez Vilaro – painted a mural “The Roots of Peace” on the walls of the Pan American Union tunnel in Washington, 1960

Jose Belloni



Leonor Fini: Born in Buenos Aires in 1907 of an Italian mother and Argentinian father whom she never knew, Drawing was an important part of her life and her extraordinary draughtsmanship is marked by rapid, vibrant, sharply incisive strokes of a fine pen. Leonor was a born story-teller, both in conversation and in the many tales, memoir-fragments, prose-poems and three "novels" that she wrote beginning in the early seventies.

Jose Maria Villafuerte – paints in the style, vintage racecars, born in 1954 in Buenos Aires

Influences in dance and song come from Native American, Spanish, Gaucho folk music, Portenos.

Classical composers: Alberto Williams and Carlos Lopez Buchardo

Pato – a national game orginally from the gauchos (dangerous then)

Literature: Jorge Luis Borges – world famous short stories are strange and written in magical realism, influential


Poets: 2 Nobel Prize winners for literature

Gabriela Mistral – a school teacher who wrote lyric poetry about lost love and everyday country people

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1945

"for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"

Gabriela Mistral(pen-name of Lucila Godoy y Alcayaga)


b. 1889d. 1957


Gabriela Mistral – Banquet Speech (Translation)

Gabriela Mistral's speech at the Nobel Banquet at the City Hall in Stockholm, December 10, 1945Today Sweden turns toward a distant Latin American country to honour it in the person of one of the many exponents of its culture. It would have pleased the cosmopolitan spirit of Alfred Nobel to extend the scope of his protectorate of civilization by including within its radius the southern hemisphere of the American continent. As a daughter of Chilean democracy, I am moved to have before me a representative of the Swedish democratic tradition, a tradition whose originality consists in perpetually renewing itself within the framework of the most valuable creations of society. The admirable work of freeing a tradition from deadwood while conserving intact the core of the old virtues, the acceptance of the present and the anticipation of the future, these are what we call Sweden, and these achievements are an honour to Europe and an inspiring example for the American continent.The daughter of a new people, I salute the spiritual pioneers of Sweden, by whom I have been helped more than once. I recall its men of science who have enriched its national body and mind. I remember the legion of professors and teachers who show the foreigner unquestionably exemplary schools, and I look with trusting love to those other members of the Swedish people: farmers, craftsmen, and workers.At this moment, by an undeserved stroke of fortune, I am the direct voice of the poets of my race and the indirect voice for the noble Spanish and Portuguese tongues. Both rejoice to have been invited to this festival of Nordic life with its tradition of centuries of folklore and poetry.May God preserve this exemplary nation, its heritage and its creations, its efforts to conserve the imponderables of the past and to cross the present with the confidence of maritime people who overcome every challenge.My homeland, represented here today by our learned Minister Gajardo, respects and loves Sweden, and it has sent me here to accept the special honour you have awarded to it. Chile will treasure your generosity among her purest memories.


The Nobel Prize in Literature 1971

"for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams"

Pablo Neruda(pen-name of Neftalí Ricardo Reyes Basoalto)


b. 1904d. 1973

a committed Communist, wrote about hunger, poverty, and the plight of factory workers


Pablo Neruda Nobel Diploma

Artist: Gunnar BrusewitzCalligrapher: Kerstin Anckers



Largely unknown outside of Mexico

Mexican Muralist – Diego Rivera

Others: Jose Fors, Manuel Gonzalez Serrano, Alicia Rahon, Ricardo Martinez, Jose Orozco

Indigenous Indian style continues to be the backbone on contemporary Mexican art


Carlos Fuentes contemporary writer: The Death of Artemio Cruz and Where the Air is Clear

Octavia Paz a writer and poet The Labyrinth of Solitude: Life and Thought in Mexico In 1990 first local-born Mexican to receive the Nobel prize in literature


The Nobel Prize in Literature 1990

"for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"

Octavio Paz


b. 1914d. 1998


Octavio Paz - Nobel Diploma

Artist: Bo LarssonCalligrapher: Annika Rücker


Painters:Jose Campeche 1752-1809 religious oil paintings / few survive Francisco Oller y Cesterro 1833-1917 went to France / Impressionist movement El Velorio mourning for the death of a young child Paved way for artists to use Puert Rico as themes for their paintings Miguel Pou and Ramon Frade After World War II Lorenzo Homar, J.A. Torres Martino, Rafael Tufino founded Center for Puerto Rican Art

Silkscreen printing, woodcut and linocut techniques

Antonio Martorell – pop artist / playing cards with political cartoons, designing an undergrond shopping center (Ondergraun)

Last 30 years: Mrna Baez, Ivette Cabrera, Consuelo Gotay

Literature:1890’s first novels Manuel Zeno Gandia / La Charca – political novel 20th Century Enrique Lagurre wrote about Puerto Rican society Rene Marques most famous / The Ox Cart – faming family moving to New York and struggling with their new lives


Notable developments in last 200 years After independence the first national arts institutions established creating the first music conservatory, a symphony orchestra, and an academy of art. Most often the theme is political.

Notable painters of 20th century: Jose Mejia Vides portrays small town life in his paintings. Vivid and simple style. Julia Diaz female painter whose work has exhibited all over the world Fernando Llort founded an art school in La Palma

Poetry since 19th century:

Juan Jose Canas Gavidia wrote nostalgically about El Salvador’s lakes and volcanoes while living abroad. Salazar Arrue, pen name Salarrue was a novelist, short story writer, and painter. His story Cuentos de Barro marks the beginning of the modern Central

American short story genre.

Exiles due to politics:

Roque Dalton (executed) Clandestine Poems Manlio Argueta One Day of Life and Cuzcatlan (Costa Rica) Claribel Alegria 15 books in 11 languages (Spain)


Group of New Sensibility – Late 1920’s (Later called casitas)

Francisco Zunigo – sculptor Maternidad Teodorico Quiros – painter El Porton Rojo Others: Manuel de la Cruz, Enrique Echandi, Faust Pacheco, Margarita Bertheau, Luisa Gonzales de Saenz

Today: Isidro Con Wong (began as a poor farmer painting with his fingers), Leonel Gonzalez, Roberto Lizano

Literature – Costumbrismo=Local color that depicts life of the campesinos in campesino dialect

Joaquin Garcia Monge – journalist & teacher Reperatorio Americano and El Moto

Aquileo J. Echeverria – National Poet Concherias


Alberto Canas – journalist, essayist, novelist, Alfonso Chase – prose writer, and Carmen Naranjo



Jose Miguel Gomez – 18th century, believed to have been the founder of fine arts in Honduras with his religious paintings

1920’s – Arturo Lopez Rodezno – founded National School of Arts and Crafts

Dilber Padilla = vibrant colors, especially red

Cruz Bermudez – Garifuna painter, paints endangered species to publicize their dilemma


Authors started work as newspaper journalists, not many local magazines. Few young adult and children’s books are written.

Jose Cicilio del Valle, Rafael Heliodoro Valle, Jose Trinidad Reyes, Ramon Rosa, Juan Molina, Marcos Reyes, Rafael H. Valle

Lucila Gamero de Medina – a woman who wrote the first Honduran novel to be published when she was 20 years old in 1893



Spanish influenced for many years, until 19th century used baroque

Juan M. Cedeno, Roberto Lewis, Rogelio Sinan, Jose G. Mora

Shelia Lichacz – honors ancient cultures of Panama, Infinity


Basilio de Oviedo, Antonio de Herrara, Pedro de Angleria – colonial period

Victor de la Guardia – wrote the first play at the start of the 18th century

After independence from Spain in the 19th century = Political era Ramon Valdes, Ricardo Miro – wrote with political themes

Political Figures as well as literary figures

Ricardo Alfaro – former president

Jose de Jesus Martinez – General Torrijos’s closeset aid



Most of the art that is discussed about Guatemala is the history of Mayan art. It is found works of stone,textiles and literature.

Literature: 2 Nobel Prize Winners

Miguel Angel Asturias 1967 – inventor of magical realism, South American literature characterized by this fusion of the real and the surreal: Legends of Guatemal, The President, Men of Maize

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1967

"for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"

Miguel Angel Asturias


b. 1899d. 1974


The Nobel Prize in Literature 1992

"in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"

Rigoberta Menchú Tum


b. 1959

Over the years, Rigoberta Menchú has become widely known as a leading advocate of Indian rights and ethno-cultural reconciliation, not only in Guatemala but in the Western Hemisphere generally, and her work has earned her several international awards.



Ruben Dario – poet, Leader of the Modernist movement that freed traditional Latin American writing from European reules

Daniel Ortega – former president, poet

Joaquin Pasos – poet and member of Literary Vanguard established 1927

Pablo Antonio Cuadra – author and dramatist

Ernesto Cardenal – poet & priest, minister of culture

Sergio Ramirez – short stories; novelist Hernan Robleto; poets Mario Sanchez and Santiago Arguello


Genaro Amador Lira – sculptor

Asilia Guillen – painter, Las Isletas


Painters & Sculptors:

Alejandro Otero & Jesus Soto are both of the 20th century and work with Kinetic art forms or moving sculpture

Carlos Raul Villaneuba - architect



Alejandro Obregon: regarded by many as the father of modern painting in Colombia. His images are mainly of animals, birds, plants, which reflect his environment; also he is known for his semiabstract landscapes inspired by the coast

Fernando Botero – paints recognizable round figures; it is said the people in his paintings are always fat. Many of the scenes he paints are form everyday contemporary life in Colombia and Latin America. At times he includes a wry look at military and political figures. He is also a sculptor, these can be seen in parks and squares in Colombia, U.S., and Europe.


Literature: Gabriel Garcia Marquez

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1982

"for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"

Gabriel García Márquez


b. 1928

Gabriel García Márquez was born in 1928 in the small town of Aracataca, situated in a tropical region of northern Colombia, between the mountains and the Caribbean Sea. He grew up with his maternal grandparent - his grandfather was a pensioned colonel from the civil war at the beginning of the century. He went to a Jesuit college and began to read law, but his studies were soon broken off for his work as a journalist. In 1954 he was sent to Rome* on an assignment for his newspaper, and since then he has mostly lived abroad - in Paris, New York, Barcelona and Mexico - in a more or less compulsory exile. Besides his large output of fiction he has written screenplays and has continued to work as a journalist.


Oscar Niemeyer – architect: National Congress, Planalto Palace, Supreme Court, & Metropolitan Cathedral in Brasilia

Roberto Burle Marx – garden designs: Copacabana Beach

Candido Portinari – 20th century artist – murals and canvas depicting social themes

Jorge Amado – early themes focused on poor but good people of the lower classes and evil men of power. His later stories are sophisticated and humorous

Soccer & Pele

Pele’s real name is Edson Arantes do Nascimento, first played soccer for Brazin in 1957 when he was sixteen, and he represented his country in four World Cup Tournaments. Once in Nigeria, opposing sides in the Viafra Civil War agreed to stop fighting for forty-eight hours so they could watch him play.

There are more than 20,000 teams in the country.