ENHANCING PRODUCTION/PRODUCTIVITY OF WHEAT Dr. N.B. Singh Agriculture Commissioner Government of India Department of Agriculture & Cooperation Ministry of Agriculture (September 14-15, 2006)
Projected Production and Requirement of Wheat & Foodgrains (Million Tonnes) # Present growth rate of foodgrains – 2.1% consists of rice 2.7%, wheat 0.2%, coarse cereals 4.5% $ Requirement includes consumption, buffer stock (4 million tonnes), availability of 15 days’ consumption in the open market of 2.9 million tonnes in 2006-07 and 3.12 million tonnes in 2011-12.
Causes for Low Productivityof Wheat • Delayed sowing in rice-wheat and in cotton-wheat system • Low Seed Replacement Rate (SRR) • Low and imbalanced use of fertilizers / nutrients • Temperature rise during grain formation period • Deficiency of micro and secondary nutrients • Deceleration of factor productivity • Soil degradation and loss of fertility • Poor efficiency of irrigation water • Escalating cost of inputs – (especially diesel)
Delayed sowing results in Yield Decline Based on multilocation long term (10 Years) trials of ICAR (DWR Bul. 2004)
Imbalanced use of Plant Nutrients Required Ratios : 4: 2 : 1 (N,P,K) 2004 - 05
Wide spread deficiency of zinc Source: IISS, Bhopal(ICAR)
Deficiency of Manganese Source: IISS, Bhopal Source: IISS, Bhopal (ICAR)
Widespread Boron deficiency Source: IISS, Bhopal (ICAR)
Strategies for Production Enhancement • Area Expansion • 1 to 1.4 million ha in the States of U.P., M.P., Bihar, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat • Productivity Increase • 25 to 40%
Targeted States for Area Expansion (Area in lakh ha)
Productivity Enhancement • Timely sowing (optimum sowing time between 15 Oct. to Mid Nov.) • Promoting high temperature tolerant varieties • Improved agricultural practices/sowing • Promoting integrated nutrient/pest management • Increasing water use efficiency through sprinkler • Zero Till cum Seed Drill • Increasing balanced use of fertilizer/application
Response of *N2 application on Wheat Productivity * Accordingly ratio of Phosphorous and Potash to be added Based on multilocation / year data recorded by ICAR (DWR Bul. 20)
Lessons learnt about N2 Response in Wheat * After 1990’s N2 application of 150kg / ha has recorded highest yield in entire wheat areas. * 50 % N2 Basal + 50% at the time of first irrigation has given best results * More than two splits of N2 is usually beneficial after application of 50% basal dose * Under Zero tillage also 150 kg N2/ha has recorded highest yield
Action Plan Varietal Development • Terminal heat tolerant varieties • Suitable varieties with higher yield potential in Punjab, Haryana & western U.P. • Early maturing cotton varieties in cotton-wheat system. • Early maturing high yielding rice varieties for rice-wheat system. • Improved wheat varieties for late sowing.
Action Plan MANAGEMENT PRACTICES • Improved sowing methods for different cropping system • Direct seeding of rice in rice-wheat system • Efficient fertilizer/micro-nutrients use • Improved agronomic practices to address rise in temperature • Weed management • Mopping of Micronutrient deficiency
Required Interventions for enhancing Productivity • Identify Potential Regions / States i.e. Eastern UP, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal • Identify the districts with high yield potential ; 138 districts identified • Channelize input supply i.e. Seed fertilizer, farm machinery on priority
Action Plan 3 Year Plan for 138 districts : coverage 13 million ha.
Conntd. Total Financial Requirement for 3 year Rolling Plan I Year275.00 II Year483.00 III Year483.00 Total: 1241.00
Outline of the Scheme • Total cost of the scheme Rs.2482 cr. over 3 years • Proposed share (50%) of Central Government – Rs.1241 cr. • Proposed share (30%) of State Government – Rs.548 cr. • Rest contribution by beneficiary
State of preparedness for Rabi : 2006-07 • Seed • Requirement - 20.0 lakh Quintal; Available – 45 lakh qtls. • Fertilizer • Requirement - 127 lakh tonnes urea • - 48 lakh tonnes DAP & • - 19 lakh tonnes of MOP • Micro-nutrients • Available as per requirement • Zero Till Machines • Requirement : 6000 Zero till cum seed drill - Available • Micro-Irrigation : Systems Available
Region wise Recommended varieties of Wheat *Durum Contd…
Identified Districts of different States with potential for increasing production and productivity of Wheat Contd….