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Harvesting Energy

Harvesting Energy. Topics you are not responsible for: The individual enzymatic steps of glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the ETC The details of fat metabolism through β -oxidation Be able to answer questions: Self-test #s 1,3,6-13. Can dieting lengthen your life?

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Harvesting Energy

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  1. Harvesting Energy Topics you are not responsible for: The individual enzymatic steps of glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the ETC The details of fat metabolism through β-oxidation Be able to answer questions: Self-test #s 1,3,6-13 Harvesting Energy

  2. Can dieting lengthen your life? What is “calorie restriction” ? Animal data – true for humans? Why ??? Hormesis theory Activation of “longevity genes” Reduced “free radicals” Free radicals are normal product of cellular respiration -- electron transport chain -- H2O2, O2- ; OH-, etc Harvesting Energy

  3. Cellular Respiration lies at center of cellular metabolism Produces: energy supply & intermediates for other pathways Harvesting Energy

  4. How are different foods ‘processed’ into usable cellular energy? Catabolism Anabolism Ultimate catabolic products Harvesting Energy

  5. How is cellular respiration different from combustion? How is it similar? Harvesting Energy

  6. What are the 2 mechanisms of producing ATP? ADP + Pi  ATP Substrate level ATP synthesis -- glycolysis -- Krebs cycle Chemiosmotic ATP synthesis -- electron transport Harvesting Energy

  7. What are the overall stages of cellular respiration? Where do these processes occur? Under what conditions do they occur? Terminology usage Cellular respiration vs Aerobic respiration Harvesting Energy

  8. What are the principal chemical changes that occur during glycolysis? Oxidation & Priming Cleavage ATP synthesis What is the energy yield from glycolysis? Harvesting Energy

  9. Pyridoxal-PO4 Riboflavin What are some other coenzymes and prosthetic groups required for metabolism? NADH -- Vitamin B3(Niacin) -- How are electrons stored in NADH? FADH -- need Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Pyridoxal-phosphate -- need Vitamin B6 (Pyrodoxin) -- AA metabolism Harvesting Energy

  10. Why is Arsenate poisonous? AsO43- resembles and substitutes for PO43- For example: Normal glycolysis reaction: 3-Phosphoglycerate + PO4 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate In presence of Arsenate 3-Phosphoglycerate + AsO4 1-arseno-3-phosphoglycerate Harvesting Energy

  11. What are the fate(s) of pyruvate? What is the function of fermentation? -- Pyruvate disposal -- NAD+ recycling Harvesting Energy

  12. What is the structure of Mitochondria? Where do different reactions occur? Harvesting Energy

  13. How is Pyruvate converted into Acetyl-CoA? Pyruvate dehydrogenase -- Decarboxylation What is Coenzyme-A? Why is Acetyl-CoA important in metabolism? Harvesting Energy

  14. Back to alcohol metabolism… What are the metabolic consequences on liver of alcoholism? (some of them!) Weight loss Arteriosclerosis  heart attacks Acidosis  kidney damage Liver cirrhosis Consequences of NADH/NAD imbalance Harvesting Energy

  15. What are the function and major events of the Krebs cycle? What are the end products? -- useful -- waste Harvesting Energy

  16. Redox Potential of NADH Q Cyt-c O2 -0.32 0.04 0.22 0.816 Increasing affinity for e- How does the Electron Transport chain pass energy from NADH to ATP? Loss of e- creates free radicals E- Transport Chain ATP synthase Hydrogen Ion Gradient Harvesting Energy

  17. How is heat production enhanced in brown adipose tissue (BAT)? What is BAT? ...WAT? “Nonshivering thermogenesis” Involves “Uncoupling” of e- transport from ATP synthesis -- Thermogin transporter Under Thyroid hormone control Relationship to weight control Harvesting Energy

  18. What is the net energy yield from glucose? 2.5 ATP / NADH 1.5 ATP / FADH Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes Total energy yield = ~ 30% Where did rest of energy go? Harvesting Energy

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