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Chapter 15 Puerperium and Lactation AVS 222. Puerperium. The period after parturition when reproductive tract repairs itself and returns to its non-pregnant condition (Uterine involution) Become prepared for another pregnancy

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puerperium
Puerperium
  • The period after parturition when reproductive tract repairs itself and returns to its non-pregnant condition (Uterine involution)
  • Become prepared for another pregnancy
  • Begins immediately after parturition and recovery period varies among species
  • Short and smooth recovery period is desirable
events of puerperium
Events of Puerperium
  • Myometrium contraction and expulsion of lochia
  • Endometrial repair
  • cyclcity:
  • Elimination of bacterial contamination
stage 2 3 endometrial repair resumption of ovarian function
Stage 2 & 3: Endometrial repairResumption of ovarian function
  • Necrosis of caruncular tissues
  • Sloughing of the caruncular tissues
  • Reorganization of uterine endometruim
  • First postpartum ovulation
slide8

Stage 4:Elimination of bacterial contamination

  • Continuation of uterine contraction
  • Rise in Estradiol and increase in leukocytes
  • High degree of
slide13

The Mammary Gland

• Exocrine gland; common to all mammals

• Function: nourish the neonate

- Food source: fat, protein, sugar (CHO),

vitamins, minerals, water

- Protection: immunoglobulins

slide14

The Mammary Gland

  • Loosely considered part of the reproductive system:
  • Serves a “reproductive function”; nourishment of the neonate = survival of species.
  • Relies on same endocrine (hormonal) support for development and function.
  • Example: gonadal steroids, prolactin, etc.
slide15

The Mammary Gland

Embryo Origin:

• The mammary gland is a skin gland

slide16

The Mammary Gland

Secretory Tissues:

• Glandular; secreting tissue =

– Alveoli:

– Duct system; lined by epithelial cells

– Lobules & lobes; clusters of alveolar tissue

supported by connective tissue

slide19

The Mammary Gland

Alveolus:

– basic secretory unit; lined by epithelial cells

which synthesize and/or secrete:

• lipid - triglycerides & free fatty acids (FFA)

• protein-

• lactose–

• minerals & vitamins- Ca, P, K; Vits. A, B, C, D

• water

slide20

Milk Synthesis

• Milk synthesis is dependent on:

– no. secreting cells

– supply of milk precursor

– milking frequency

No. secreting cells is dependent on:

– genetics

– endocrine support for mammogenesis

slide21

Blood Components

Blood Flow (cattle)

Example:

What volume of blood would a 1400 lb. Holstein pump per day?

1400 lb. Cow ~ .9 liters/ heart stroke

Volume/day = .9 x 70 strokes/min = 63 liters/min

63 liters/min x 1440 min/day = 90,720 liters/day

= ~ 22,600 gal/day

slide22

Blood Components

Blood Flow (cattle)

• Volume of blood/ volume of milk synthesized =

(this is an approximation; actual ratio is

affected by stage of lactation, efficiency, etc.)

slide23

Steroid Hormones and Mammogenesis

  • Estrogens:
  • – follicle, placenta,
  • • Progesterone:
  • – corpus luteum, placenta,
  • • Corticoids:
  • – adrenal cortex
slide24

Steroid Hormones and Mammogenesis

• Estrogens (E2) (follicle, placenta)

1)

2)

3) synergize with progesterone & prolactin to

stimulate protein synthesis and duct growth

slide25

Steroid Hormones and Mammogenesis

• Progesterone (P4) (corpus luteum, placenta)

1)stimulates lobulo-alveolar growth– retards milk synthesis

2)retards synthesis of enzymes (a-lactalbumin) necessary for lactogenesis in the prepartum mammary gland

slide26

Lactogenesis; Cortisol

• Action of cortisol:( from adrenal cortex)

(dexamethasone is synthetic cort.)

1) synthesis stimulated by maternal, fetal ACTH

essential to lactogenesis (adrenalectomy > nolactogenesis)

2)

slide27

Mammogenesis

(Mammary Growth and Development)

• Placental E2 + luteal P4 =

– duct development

– lobulo-alveolar development

– suppression of milk synthesis

(P4 suppresses

-lactalbumin; lactose synthesis

slide28

Mammogenesis

(Mammary Growth and Development)

• Action of cortisol + PRL:

– increase PRL receptor synthesis

– increase protein transcription/translation

• cortisol is permissive to action of PRL

slide29

Lactogenesis

(Milk Synthesis)

  • • How does P4 retard milk synthesis in the nonlactating mammary gland?
  • Blocks glucocorticoid (cortisol) receptors
  • • Cortisol + PRL stimulates synthesis of PRL receptors on mammary cells
      • P4blocks induction of PRL receptors
  • • Retards synthesis of a-lactalbumin, casein mRNA
  • • Retards casein, a-alactalbumin, lactose synthesis
      • thus, retards milk synthesis
slide30

Endocrine Glands Supporting

Mammary Function

Posterior pituitary (protein hormones):

Oxytocin

  • Synthesized in the hypothalmus
  • Ttransferred to post. pit.
  • Secreted into blood > acts on myoepithelial cells
  • Contraction of myoepithelial, smooth muscle
slide32

Endocrine Glands Supporting

Mammary Function

  • • increases gluconeogenesis
  • • increases blood glucose
  • increases efficiency of
  • production (greater lbs. of
  • milk/ lb. DMI)

• GH (STH, BST):

– increases milk yield

Action:

slide33

Endocrine Glands Supporting

Mammary Function

Pancreas (islets of Langerhans; protein hormones)

(responsive to blood glucose concentration)

Glucagon (alpha cells):

  • • increases lipolysis
  • • increases glycogenolysis
  • • depresses cellular glucose uptake
  • • catabolic to adipose, muscle, liver tissue
  • • increases blood glucose concentration
slide37

Lactogenesis

• Lactogenesis = initiation of milk synthesis

– initiated in the E2/P4 “primed” mammary

gland when:

• corpus luteum regresses

• P4 declines

• cortisol increases

• PRL, GH increase

– these circumstances occur at parturition