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CHANGE ISD 651 Pat Lombard and Jane Wimberg. What is change?.

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what is change
What is change?

"There is a pattern underlying the eight lessons of dynamic change and it concerns one's ability to work with polar opposites: simultaneously pushing for change while allowing self-learning to unfold; being prepared for a journey of uncertainty; seeing problems as sources of creative resolution; having a vision, but not being blinded by it; valuing the individual and the group; incorporating centralizing and decentralizing forces; being internally cohesive, but externally oriented; and valuing, personal change agentry as the route to system change, Fullan (1993).”

main points
Main Points
  • Michael Fullan (1993) lists eight “basic lessons” that can be learned about the process of change and improvement:
    • 1. The more complex the change, the less you can force it.
    • 2. Change is non-linear, loaded with uncertainty and excitement and sometimes perverse.
    • 3. Problems are inevitable and you can’t learn without them.
    • 4. Vision and strategic planning come later.
    • 5. There are no one-sided solutions to isolation and group think.
    • 6. Both top-down and bottom-up strategies are necessary.
    • 7. The best organizations learn externally as well as internally.
    • 8. Change is too important to leave to the experts, personal mind set and mastery is the ultimate protection
key players in change theory
Key Players in Change Theory

Everett M. Rogers

Diffusion of Innovation and the Change Process

Hall & Hord

Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM)

Michael Fullan

School Reform

Don Ely

Eight Conditions Before Implementing a Change

implications in instructional design
Implications in Instructional Design
  • Change takes time.
  • Change requires support.
  • Change needs to be observable.
  • Change needs to have trialability.
  • Change should not be too complex.
  • Change has to be compatible.
  • There has to be a relative. advantage.
change theory incorporated into the dick and carey model
Change Theory Incorporated into the Dick and Carey Model
  • Change theory is implemented in each step of the D and C model
  • Ely’s 8 Conditions, especially:
    • “Availability of Resources”: applicable to the development and selection of instructional materials
    • “Availability of Time”: applicable to the Formative and Summative evaluation
interesting websites change theory
Interesting Websites: Change Theory
  • Encyclopedia for Educational Technology
  • Assessing Change in Your Organization: Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering
  • Exploring the History of Technology
  • A Friendly Welcoming Attitude Toward Change
  • Attitude Coach/Adjustment from
usa library books
USA Library Books

Michael Fullan

  • Change Forces: The Sequel, 1999
  • Leading in a Culture of Change, 2001
  • Meaning of Educational Change, 1982
  • New Meaning of Education Change, 1991
  • What’s Worth Fighting For in Your School, 1996
something new change theory
Something New: Change Theory
  • Management Challenges for the 21st Century by Peter F. Drucker
      • Drucker sees the period we're living in as one of "PROFOUND TRANSITION” and says that there are five social and political certainties that will shape business strategy in the not-too-distant future:
        • the collapsing birthrate in the developed world
        • shifts in distribution of disposable income
        • a redefinition of corporate performance
        • global competitiveness
        • and the growing incongruence between economic and political reality.
      • Drucker looks at requirements for leadership
        • "One cannot manage change. One can only be ahead of it”
        • characteristics of the "new information revolution"
        • one should focus on the meaning of information, not the technology that collects it
        • productivity of the knowledge worker (unlike manual workers, knowledge workers must be seen as capital assets, not costs)
        • the responsibilities that knowledge workers must assume in managing themselves and their careers.