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  1. Argument Basics Argument consists of premise and conclusion.

  2. What is argument? • Reasoning has premises with conclusions. • What are the premise and the conclusion in the cartoon on education?

  3. Premise and Conclusion • The premise is that it is hard for kids to fit in at school. • The conclusion is that a game like musical chairs only makes it harder to fit in.

  4. Argument = Premise Conclusion • Is it funny that a college graduate has become a cook? • In the cartoon, what are the premise and the conclusion?

  5. Argument = Premise Conclusion • Premise: Graduates get good jobs. • Premise: Fine arts majors don’t. • Conclusion: At college, don’t take the Fine arts major.

  6. Authors may not statethe premises. • Sometimes authors state their case without providing a stated premise. • For example, a professor may tell a student: “You can pass this course easily.” • What is the professor’s unstated premise? • The student already knows everything. • The professor will pass the student no matter how well the student scores. • The professor believes that the student is able to learn enough to pass the course.

  7. Authors don’t always give their reasons. • If a professor states: “You can pass this course easily.” The unstated premise is probably that • The student already knows everything. • The professor will pass the student no matter how well the student scores. • The professor believes that the student is able to learn enough to pass the course.

  8. What are dependent premises? • Dependent premises need help to support the conclusion. • Minnie says that she shot Mickey because she couldn’t stand his voice anymore. • Will the police accept her premise as enough? • Or will they ask her to present more reasons for having shot Mickey?

  9. What are independent premises? • Independent premises don’t need another premise to provide support for a conclusion. • Which are the independent premises here? • Can there be more than one independent premise? • Science is based on experiment, • on a willingness to challenge old dogma, • on an openness to see the universe as it is. • Accordingly, science can require courage.

  10. There can be more than one independent premise. • Independent premises don’t need another premise to provide support for a conclusion. • The independent premises here are • Science is based on experiment, • on a willingness to challenge old dogma, • on an openness to see the universe as it is. • Accordingly, science can require courage. Does it take courage to experiment and change how we see things?

  11. Premises have lead-ins. • What are the lead-in words that indicate premises? • Since apples taste good, I’ll eat one now. • For your future, you must study today. • In view of your many traffic tickets, your driver’s license has been suspended. • Because of paying attention, you have learned to write good essays.

  12. Premises have lead-ins. • The lead-in words that indicate premises or reasons are • Since apples taste good, I’ll eat one now. • For your future, you must study today. • In view of your many traffic tickets, your driver’s license has been suspended. • Because of your paying attention, you have learned to write good essays.

  13. Premises may be irrelevant. • Is it relevant to tell the judge that you were speeding because you were insane? • Won’t he find the premise irrelevant?

  14. Stated and Unstated Conclusions • Why did the policeman stop the driver? • What is the driver’s reaction? • Is the policeman’s conclusion stated or unstated?

  15. Controversial Conclusions • Are the findings of all medical studies correct? • Do you believe that life is bad for you? • Is the conclusion especially controversial?

  16. Conclusions may have lead-ins. • Why does the boy want the man to tell about himself? • Which keyword does the boy use to introduce his conclusion?

  17. Conclusions Repeat Words • What is the girl doing? • To whom is she complaining? • Which word introduces the change in her prayer?

  18. Premises must tie to conclusions. • What does the bum want? • Is he just too optimistic? • Which conclusion makes more sense?

  19. When the premise mismatches the conclusion. • Why is Billy getting only half paid? • Will he trust his dad anymore? • In conclusion, should he demand a written contract?

  20. Can you match the vocabulary? __1. Ed’s vacation time will __ with his wife's time off. __2. The test results deviated so clearly from the __ that the teacher decided not to use them. __3. The __ results of her research were disappointing, but later findings were promising. __4. Jorge found the __ of that computer program to be rather confusing. __5. No __ from the rules will be allowed during the exam. Unit 4: Lesson 3 • coincide-happen together • deviation-change • format-layout • norm-rule • preliminary-beginning

  21. Can you match the vocabulary? A 1. Ed’s vacation time will __ with his wife's time off. D 2. The test results deviated so clearly from the __ that the teacher decided not to use them. E 3. The __ results of her research were disappointing, but later findings were promising. C 4. Jorge found the __ of that computer program to be rather confusing. B 5. No __ from the rules will be allowed during the exam. Unit 4: Lesson 3 • Coincide • Deviation • Format • Norm • Preliminary