Ancient Greece Types of government Olympia Athens Resources http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ancientgreece/index.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_658.pdf www.lexilogos.com/jeux_olympiques_origine.htm www.amb-grece.fr/olympisme/site.htm
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Types of government
A monarchy is a form of government in which an individual rules as head of state, often for life or until abdication. The person who heads a monarchy is called a monarch. For example, Theseus was a legendary king of Athens who built the city circa 800 BC.
is a single ruler holding vast, if not absolute power through a state or in an organization. The term carries modern connotations of a harsh and cruel ruler who places his or her own interests or the interests of a small oligarchy over the best interests of the general population which the tyrant governs or controls. However, in the classical sense, the word simply means one who has taken (for example Pisistrate who steered in Athens from 561 to 527 BC ) power by their own means as opposed to hereditary or constitutional power (and generally without the modern connotations).
is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (wether distinguisehd by wealth, family, military powers or spiritual hegemony.Historically, many oligarchies openly gave the political power to a minority group, sometimes arguing that this was an aristocracy organization by the best and the brightest (in Athens, from 700 to 561 BC for example or after the democracy). Although Aristotle pioneered the use of the term as a synonym for rule by the rich, for which the exact term is plutocracy, oligarchy is not always a rule by wealth, as oligarchs can simply be a privileged group.
Is a system of govemment by which political sovereignty is retained by the people and exercised directly by citizens. In moderm times it has also been used to refer to a constitutional republic where the people have a voice through their elected representatives. It is derived from the Greek in the midle of the 5th century BC to denote the politcal systems the existing in some Greek city-sates, notably Athens.
In ancient Greece the Olympic games were held in honour of Zeus, King of the Gods. The games were part of a great five day festival held every four years at Olympia, a valley near a city called Elis.
It was an opportunity for individual cities to get together and people came in large numbers from all over the Greek world. The earliest Olympic Games were held in about 776BC. In those days the only event was a short sprint, from one end of the stadium to the other. Gradually over the years more were added until there were four days of many different competitions.
Olympia in Ancient Greece in Pierers Universal-Lexikon, 1891
Crypt (arched way to the stadium)
Inside the temple, statue of Zeus, a wonder of ancient world (height : 18 m)
Temple of Zeus
D) Equestrian curse
H) Javelin throw
Women did not have citizen rights. They could not take part in the assembly, or vote, or serve on juries.
In wealthy families girls were educated to run the household of servants and slaves, and were usually married by the age of 13. In poorer families women worked alongside men, farming in the fields or running the family business.
Some women had more freedom than others. Aspasia was a teacher of public speaking, who had influence in Athenian politics. Her unmarried partner was the famous general Perikles.
This woman has a tunic, cloak and flowers round her head.
« And so, in the arrangement of the family, a slave is a living possession, and property a number of such instruments; and the servant is himself an instrument which takes precedence of all other instruments. »
Aristotle, Politics, book I, IV,
Between a quarter and a third of Athens 300,000 population were slaves. These were men and women captured in wars or born into slavery.
Many slaves had special skills, such as nurses and teachers, while others had the hardest and most unpleasant work to do. It was common for a rich household to have many slaves.
Some slaves were owned by the state. For example archers from Scythia were used as a kind of police force by the Athenian government.
Some skilled slaves worked as pottery painters. It was possible for them to save their wages and eventually buy their freedom.
Slaves in a mine