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Accident Investigation Getting Facts to Make Decisions. Presented by: Daecher Consulting Group Inc. HOW TO MANAGE ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION. Conducting the Investigation Investigate every accident or injury Investigate immediately Develop preventative plans Why Investigate
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Daecher Consulting Group Inc.
1.Point of possible perceptionB where a normally attentive person could have perceived the hazardous situation. Always comes at or before the point of perception.
2.Point of perceptionB where the (potentially) hazardous situation is actually perceived by the driver or pedestrian involved.
3.EncroachmentB is movement into the path assigned to another traffic unit. Example: crossing the centerline.
4.Start of evasive actionB the first action taken by a traffic unit to avoid a collision course or otherwise avoid a hazard.
5.Point of no escapeB that place and time beyond which the accident cannot be prevented by the traffic unit. The position of this point in the chain of events can vary considerably.
6.First Harmful EventB “the first occurrence in a traffic accident that results in appreciable damage or injury; the occurrence determining the time and place of the accident; usually the first contact in impact.”
7.Initial contactB the first accidental touching of an object collided with by a traffic unit in motion.
8.Maximum engagementB the greatest collapse or overlap in a collision. The deepest penetration of the perimeter of the traffic unit.
9.DisengagementB separation of a traffic unit in motion from an object with which it has collided.
Note: May have repeated contacts where #7, #8, and #9 are repeated in the second collision.
10. Stopping and final positionB where the vehicles come to rest; the accident situation is stabilized.ELEMENTS OF AN ACCIDENT (CHAIN OF EVENTS)
Phase 1: Pre-Impact
Phase 2: Impact
Phase 3: Post-Impact
Centrifugal or Sideslid Skid
- Advanced warning
- Cone/barrel placement
- Equipment & crew
- Work zone speeds
- operation sequence
- clearance intervals
- On the road
- Off the road
- Roadway contours
- Heavy snow or rain
- Railroad crossing
- Road widths
- BridgesTRAFFICWAY CONDITIONS THATCAN CONTRIBUTE TO AN ACCIDENT
a.To record information for later use.
b.To assist memory
c.To impeach principles and witness=s
d.To support or discredit testimony
a.Overall of scene
b.Facing direction of vehicles approach
c.Area of impact
d.Fixed object damage
h.Any evidence which you are about to secure
i.points of rest of vehicles, objects, people
i. Any other conditions or items that may be of importance
I. Decide if measurements are necessary
II. Photograph the scene
III. Locate the temporary evidence
IV.Locate and mark each point to be measured, including:
a.Start of skid marks
b. Skid mark direction changes
c. Skid mark crossings
d. Vehicle wheel positions at first rest
e. Gouges in the roadway
f. Major debris points
V.Make a field sketch of the accident scene
When taking a statement from someone who has been involved in an accident or who has witnessed an accident it is important to remember that any guide is simply that, aguide that assists in covering certain important elements for any type of accident. There cannot be one guide for all accidents. The cooperative nature of the person giving the statement and whether they have a vested interest in the outcome may affect how the questions are answered. Preparation is vital in securing a good and thorough statement. This same guide can be used for witnesses as well as those directly involved. Remember, statements of minors should not be taken unless in the presence of or with a parent or guardian.
Help the person be at ease as much as possible. Try not to write answers while you question, as it can be very distracting. A tape-recorded statement can be taken and is the best. It is in the subject=s own voice and words. It is his/her exact statement.
Ask the person to state their full name; age; address; phone number; occupation; and how they can be reached at a later time.
Ask how the accident happened from the beginning. Pre-accident events, where they were coming from and going to. Details of the accident. What attracted their attention to the accident? Did they actually see the accident? Post accident events. Where the vehicles came to rest. How many persons in the vehicles involved. Did they hear any statements from any of the drivers involved; what were they. If they are a driver, what happened and what was their perception of the accident causation. For a witness, be sure to ascertain exactly where the witness was and how far they were from the accident.
Restate the accident as it was just described to you, then ask the person if your understanding is accurate to the best of their knowledge.
Ask for a description of all damage and injuries as a result of the accident.
Ask for the names and locations of all those involved or those who could have witnessed the accident. If names are unknown, ask for a physical description of all parties.
Ask who responded to the accident and when, secure names, badge numbers, etc. for identification.
Ask if there were any type of controls or safety devices not in use that were available (machinery guards, traffic controls, warning signs posted, non-skid strips on flooring, etc.)
Ask for their opinion as to why the accident occurred and who or what caused or is at fault for the accident.
Ask if there is anything they would like to add or change to what they have already said.