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Physiology of Strength Training Part 1 – Muscle Function Skeletal Muscle Anatomy 660 muscles Approximately 45% of body weight 75% water, 20% protein (12% myofibullar and 8% enzymes, etc) 5% inorganic salts Largest organ system End organ for the primary support systems involved in exercise

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Physiology of Strength Training


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physiology of strength training

Physiology of Strength Training

Part 1 – Muscle Function

skeletal muscle anatomy
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
  • 660 muscles
  • Approximately 45% of body weight
    • 75% water, 20% protein (12% myofibullar and 8% enzymes, etc) 5% inorganic salts
  • Largest organ system
  • End organ for the primary support systems involved in exercise
skeletal muscle anatomy3
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
  • Basement membrane – outer most ‘membrane’
  • Plasma membrane or sarcolemma
  • Satellite cells – between membranes
    • growth, development, adaptation
    • under stress they are responsible for hypertrophy and hyperplasia
  • Multi-nuclei
    • 200-300 nuclei per millimeter
      • 85-95% within the scaroplasm
      • 5-15% in the basement membrane
    • Tremendous potential for gene alterations
skeletal muscle anatomy4
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
  • Muscle
  • Fascicle
  • Fibers
skeletal muscle structure
Skeletal Muscle Structure
  • Epimysium, Endomysium, and Perimysium converge to form tendons and are very elastic
skeletal muscle anatomy6
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
  • Muscle
  • Fascicle
  • Fibers
  • Myofibrils
  • Myofilaments
    • Actin
    • Myosin
skeletal muscle anatomy13
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
  • What are the three proteins that make up actin?
  • Actin, tropomyosin, and troponin
  • What is the function of actin?
  • What is the function of tropomyosin?
  • What is the function of tropoin?
skeletal muscle anatomy15
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
  • Myosin is also referred to as the thick myofilament
  • Myosin heads
  • What does myosin use its heads for?
skeletal muscle anatomy16
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
  • Myosin
  • Actin
  • M-line proteins
  • Titin/Nebulin
muscle strength
Muscle Strength
  • Where is the strength of a muscle generated?
  • Muscle strength comes from the interaction of myosin and active
  • How is the strength of a muscle generated?
muscle contraction generating force
Muscle Contraction:Generating Force
  • Stimulation
  • Calcium
  • Actin/Myosin
  • Sliding
  • Energy/ATP
motor unit
Motor Unit
  • What is a motor unit?
  • One motor nerve
  • All the muscle fibers (cells) that it stimulates
  • Example. 1:4
  • Actual MU range from 1:10s to 1:1000s
neuromuscular junction
Neuromuscular Junction
  • How does a nerve stimulate a muscle fiber?
  • Neurotransmitter substance
  • Acetylcholine (ACh)
neuromuscular junction23
Neuromuscular Junction
  • Acetylcholine (acetate and choline)
    • Reuptake of choline
    • Fatigue?
    • Supplement?
depolarization and action potential
Depolarization and Action Potential
  • Acetycholine
  • Sodium gates open
    • Depolarization
  • Action Potential
  • Propagation of Action Potential
  • Sarcolemma
  • T-tubules
muscle contraction calcium
Muscle Contraction: Calcium
  • After the T-tubule, where does the action potential go?
  • What is stored in the sarcoplasmic recticulum?
  • Where does the calcium go?
  • FYI: Too much lactic acid may block Ca release.
muscle contraction actin myosin
Muscle Contraction: Actin/Myosin
  • Ca binds to troponin
  • Troponin causes tropomyosin to shift or move
  • This uncovers the active sites on the actin.
  • Once uncovered, the myosin heads will attach to the active site
muscle contraction sliding
Muscle Contraction: Sliding
  • What does the myosin head do once it attaches?
  • This is called a power stroke.
  • What happens to the actin?
  • The myosin breaks away, reattaches, power stroke…
  • In this case, what happens to the sarcomere?
slide32

Actin and Myosin Interaction

Charged myosin head and covered active sites.

1.

2.

Uncovered active site; myosin head attaches.

3.

Power stroke sliding actin inward; myosin head uncharged.

4

ATP separates and recharges myosin head.

muscle contraction energy
Muscle Contraction: Energy
  • What is ATP?
  • What does it provide?
slide34

ADP + P

Energized

ADP + P + energy

New

ATP

muscle relaxation
Muscle Relaxation
  • What is needed in order to have the muscle stop contracting?
  • Stop the impluse
  • Re-store the calcium
  • How? Calcium pump
  • What powers the calcium pump?
summary of muscle contraction
Summary of Muscle Contraction

1. Motor Impulse

2. Neurotransmitter Substance

3. Action potential via Na and K

4. Calcium released exposing active sites

5. ATP split forming high energy myosin

summary of muscle contraction37
Summary of Muscle Contraction

6. Myosin attaches to actin forming a crossbridge

7. Stored energy released and crossbridge movement (Power Stroke)

8. ATP breaks myosin from actin

9. ATP splits forming high energy myosin

quick time movie
Quick Time Movie
  • Yellow = Calcium
  • Green = ATP
  • Gray = ATPase
  • A Quick Time Movie of the contraction process can be download at the 5230 Web Page
muscle strength43
Muscle Strength
  • So far…
  • ...Where and how is the strength of a muscle generated?
  • Next…
  • ….What makes a muscle stronger?
    • Acute increase
    • Chronic increase