Philosophy of Language MANSUR AKIL 08114105866 firstname.lastname@example.org 2014 Preliminary questions: What do you expect from attending this course? In your opinion, what is/are the most preferred mode of presentation that will best facilitate the fulfillment of your expectation?
Course Objectives Upon completing this course, the students are able to answer the questions underneath • What is Philosophy? • What is Philosophy of Science? • What is Philosophy of Language? • What is Analytic Philosophy of Language? • What is Ordinary Philosophy of Language? • What are the major topics in Philosophy of Language? • In what ways is Philosophy of Language different from Linguistic Philosophy, Philosophy of Linguistics, Logics, and Language Philosophy? • Who are considered philosophers of language; and what are their major concerns or ideas? • In what ways will your knowledge on Philosophy of Language contribute to your professional competence as a teacher and/or as a linguist?
Philosophy • Philosophy is the (mother of ) science that seeks to organize and systematize all fields of knowledge as means of understanding and interpreting the totality of reality: usually regarded as comprising logic, ethics, esthetics, metaphysics, and epistemology ( see: pure vs app. Phil) • ED:419
Philosophy of Science Philosophy of Science is the study of the method common to all sciences, of the fundamental concepts resulting from the use of the method, of the generic traits of existence implied by these concepts, and of the basis for a unity of science ED:518
Philosophy of Language Philosophy of Language is a philosophical investigation taking its departure from the phenomenon called language, which is taken to mean any use of signs and symbols constituting communication (The application of PoS to Language) ED:329
The Major Topics in Philosophy of Language • The Nature of Meaning (Semantics: what is meant “ to mean”?) (the origin of meaning, how meaning can be known) • Language Use (Pragmatics) • Language Cognition (Language and Thought) • Relation between language and reality (Truth Conditions). (meaning, truth, and the world/reality)
Analytic Philosophy of Language Analytic Philosophy of Language seeks to expose ambiguities and illogical uses of terms (language) that lead to conceptual confusion in both theory and practice Or An analytic investigation into the manner in which a sentence or an utterances is composed into a meaningful whole out of the meaning of its parts (applied to any field using language: explanatory tool) ED:419
Ordinary Philosophy of Language Ordinary Philosophy of Language is the application of PoS to language; language as the object of PoS (ontology, epistemology, axiology of language)
Differences among Philosophy of Language, Linguistic Philosophy, Philosophy of Linguistics, and Language Philosophy • Philosophy of Language is the application of PoS to the study of language; language as the object of the study. Or, PoS as applied to language.( usually referred to ordinary PoL, by some) • Linguistic Philosophy is the view that philosophical problems are problems which may be solved or dissolved either by reforming language or understanding more about the language we presently use. • Philosophy of Linguistics is the application of PoS to linguistics, or PoS as applied to linguistics mainly concerns with: what the subject matter is; what the theoretical goals are; what form of theories should take; and what counts data • Language Philosophy is used alternately with Philosophy of Language
Philosophers of Language and their major Concerns/Ideas • Derrida: Deconstruction • Wittgenstein: Picture Theory and Language Games • Russel: Isomorph Principle • Etc: Find by yourselves!
Contribution of Philosophy of Language to the development of your • Professional Competence as a language teacher • Professional Competence as a linguist
Theories of MeningLinguistic Meanings • 1. Idea theory (Locke, Berkeley): meanings are mental contents provoked by signs. • Truth-conditional Theory (Frege, Tarsky, Davidson) holds meaning to be the condition under which an expression maybe true or false • Theories of language use: Wittgenstein, meaning as use • Constructivist theories (Austin) speech can change the reality, speech acts theory • Reference Theories/semantic externalism( Putnam, S.Kripke,Burge); meaning is equivalent to those things in the world that are actually connected to signs • Verification Theories (logical positivism) (Quine-Duhem), meaning of a sentence consists in the hearers ability to recognize the demonstration of the truth of the sentence (mathematical or empirical . • Pragmatist theory (CS.Pierce) the meaning or understanding of a sentence is determined by the consequences of its application